Friday, May 31, 2019

Rates Of Reaction :: essays research papers

Rates of ReactionBACKGROUND INFORMATIONWhat affects the rate of reaction? 1) The surface area of the atomic number 12. 2)The temperature of the reaction. 3) Concentration of the hydrochloric acid. 4)Presence of a catalyst.In the sample we use hydrochloric acid which reacts with the magnesium toform magnesium chloride. The hydrogen ions carry hydrochloric acid its acidicproperties, so that all solutions of hydrogen chloride and water hold in a sourtaste corrode active metals, forming metal chlorides and hydrogen turn litmusred neutralise alkalis and react with salts of weak acids, forming chloridesand the weak acids.Magnesium, symbol Mg, silver white metallic element that is relativelyunreactive. In group 2 (or IIa) of the periodic table, magnesium is one of thealkaline earth metals. The atomic number of magnesium is 12.Magnesium(s) + Hydrochloric acid(aq) = Magnesium Chloride(aq) + Hydrogen(g)Mg + 2HCl= MgCl2+ H2In the reaction when the magnesium hits the acid when dropped in, it fisses andthen disappears giving of hydrogen as it fisses and it leaves behind a solutionof hydrogen chloride.The activation energy of a particle is increased with heat. The particleswhich have to have the activation energy are those particles which are moving,in the case of magnesium and hydrochloric acid, it is the hydrochloric acidparticles which have to have the activation energy because they are the onesthat are moving and bombarding the magnesium particles to produce magnesiumchloride.The rate at which all reactions happen are different. An utilization of a fastreaction is an explosion, and an example of a slow reaction is rusting. In anyreaction, reactants chemical reactions products.We can measure reactions in two slipway1) Continuous- Start the experiment and watch it happen you can use acomputer logging system to monitor it. I.e. Watching a burnish fade orincrease.2) Discontinuous- Do the experiments and take readings/ samples from theexperiment at different times, th en analyse the readings/samples to see how manyreactants and products are used up/ produced.Reaction rate = amount of reactant used uptime takenIf the amount used up is the same to each one time then the wholly thing that changes isthe time taken.so, reaction rate 1time taken.rate = Ktime taken.Where K is the constant for the reaction.For particles to react-a) They have to collide with each other. b) They need a certain amount ofenergy to break down the bonds of the particles and form new ones. This energyis called the Activation Energy or Ea.When we increase the temperature we give the particles more energy which1) Makes them move faster which In turn makes them collide with each other more

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Epic of Beowulf Essay - A True Literary Epic -- Epic Beowulf essays

Beowulf A True Literary Epic The Adventures of Beowulf, a rousing Old English numbers of man and monster, and perhaps the earliest European vernacular epic, is rightfully considered an epic for it possesses those features which characterize epic poetry. For example, in epic poetry the central character has adventurous or superhuman qualities. In The Adventures of Beowulf, the main character, a Geat warrior named Beowulf, possesses such qualities He was the strongest of men alive in that day, mighty and noble. Upon spotting Beowulf approaching, the sea-guard of the Danes says, Never have I seen a greater man on earth King Hrothgar of the Danes says of Beowulf, Seafarers who took gifts to the Geats say that he has the strength of 30 men in his hand grip. Beowulf chooses to fight Grendel by himself and without shield or weapons previously the hero slew 9 sea monsters with his sword. And he is fully willing to sacrifice his very life for this I whole will fulfill the wish of your people or die in the foes grasp. Beowulf consciously chooses to act in a superhuman bearing I shall perform the deeds of a hero or I have passed my last day in this mead hall. Even Grendel recognizes the heros blue-ribbon(prenominal) strength The criminal knew he had not met in this middle-earth another with such a grip. Other warriors when thinking of Beowulf would quickly compose a skillful floor in words. Hrothgar refers to Beowulf as the best of warriors. The Danish queen Wealhtheow compliments after Grendels defeat, You have earned forever the praise of men from near and far. Hrothgar expounds on good warriors This is the best-born man my friend Beowulf the best of warriors. When the dragon burns the mead hall of the... ...eat among his kin, war- wipeout, held the gift-seat, a feast to ravens, old and wise, fell down battle-pale, battle-sweat, war-chief, drew his battle-knife, on his death-bed, death held him fast, feared evil days, etc. The Adventures of Beowulf is a poem of such stature that it manifests many common characteristics of epic poetry therefore, it can rightfully be classified as an epic poem in its own right. BIBLIOGRAPHY Clark, George. Beowulf. Boston Twayne Publishers, 1990. Fry, Donald K. Introduction The Artistry of Beowulf. In TheBeowulf Poet, edited byDonald K. fry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968. Robinson, Fred C. Apposed Word Meanings and Religious Perspectives. In Beowulf Modern exact Interpretations, edited by Harold Bloom. New York Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Most historians recognise 1917 as the year in which the Harlem :: English Literature:

Most historians recognise 1917 as the year in which the Harlem spiritual rebirth began. The Harlem Renaissance.Today most historians recognise 1917 as the year in which the Harlemrenaissance began. Three events lead to this. First was thepublication of two poems by Claude McKay. Second was the rise onBroadway of three plays about black life by a white writer, RidgelyThomas. These plays were remarkable not merely because they wereperformed by black artists but because they contained none of theusual racial stereotypes. Finally, on the 28th of July Harlemexperienced its first silent parade when ten to fifteen thousandblacks marched down 5th Avenue to own against continued racialinequities.However the rich surge in African American arts and letters that tookplace around the 1920s was not circumscribed to just Harlem, nor even toNew York City. Although, the intensity of the movement was in thatcity, and the sheer number of black writers, musicians, and scholarswho lived and worked i n Harlem has ensured that it is linked with theera.To understand the Harlem Renaissance it is necessary to send wordboth the changes that occurred within the African community and thecultural shifts that took place in American decree as a whole duringthe 1920s. For blacks the years during and after population War one wereones of increased militancy and racial pride.Phillip Randolph was struggling to organise black workers and anational campaign was actively promoting federal antilynchinglegislation. Although white society did not take these politicalmovements particularly seriously, it did give considerable recognitionto the large number of black writers, musicians and scholars who wereemerging simultaneously. These figures being people like, CounteeCullen, James Weldon, Zora Neale Hurston, Wallace Thurman and dungareeToomer. All lived in Harlem and Langston Hughes described the area asa great magnet for the negro intellectual, pulling him fromeverywhere. Yet Harlem was a magnet not only for blacks, but alsofor whites eager to experience for themselves the glamour and escapismthat its night-clubs seemed to promise. In many ways Harlem became anational symbol of the Jazz Age, a off antithesis of Main Streetand everything that the artists and cultural critics of the 1920srejected.Many Observers, black and white, hoped that this outburst of literaryand artistic talent would help to ensure greater acceptance of blacksby American Society.

The Hole in My Heart :: Personal Narratives Health Medical Essays

The Hole in My HeartWhen I was younger, I loved to play sports. Basketball was my pet and I was always one of the best on the team. I could jump high to get rebounds, I could use my foresightful arms to steal galore(postnominal) balls, I had a great shot and I did it all with grace. It was a beautiful thing and probably the only time I ever tangle completely included in a group of people. Even though I was a valuable asset to the teams I played on, I was never the best. I missed many practices because I was too tired to play. I missed some games because I was sick, and I could never run as long or hard as any one else. My parents, teachers and fri demises reduced me to a lazy hypochondriac and by the power of suggestion, I almost believed it. At the exterminate of the eighth grade, I could not do it anymore. I needed to sleep all afternoon, and sharp pains stabbed my legs with every step I took. Furthermore, I had however realized that I was a lesbian and the stress was causing me to be excessively distracted. How could I have existed with something so powerful living in my personate for so long and not know it until now? I guess societys expectations had blinded me. Of course, hindsight is always 20/20 as I reexamined my life as of that far, I could see that it had always been with me. So with the fatigue, stress, pain and illness I called it quits just a few games before the end of the season. During the next few years, I slowly limped around school, and slept through many hours of the day. I had already finished growing, so it made no sense that I slept as much as I did. I already knew why I limped I have an extra spine bone that puts pressure on my sciatic nerve causing the sharp pains in my lower body, but there was a new unexplained weakness in my hips. It was not until a trip to Las Vegas when I definitely knew there was something wrong. I was eating dinner with my mom and sister when the skin on my wrists turned puffy and I had a strange feeling i n my body and my mouth like what it feels like to touch a cotton ball with wet hands.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Adaptations of Mammals to Arid Australian Environments :: Environment Australia Animals Essays

Adaptations of Mammals to Arid Australian EnvironmentsAbstractHigh temperatures and low pelting characterize much of Australia. It is hard to believe that animals can survive in arid conditions, much less prosper. Yet there is a whole tend of mammals, among other life forms, that do. These animals survive because they have adaptations that allow them to live in the hot, dry conditions. The function of the adaptations is to balance thermoregulation with water gain and loss. For instance, many mammals that live in the desert obtain much or all of their water from the food they consume. The reduced water intake is partially balanced through concentrated water and dry faeces. Evaporative cooling helps to regulate temperature. To limit the water lost through evaporative cooling, mammals ar nocturnal, have light coloration and other personate features to help dissipate heat, and use microenvironments to reduce heat gain. This is only a short list of the many amazing adaptation s Australian mammals have to survive the grating arid conditions however, it serves to illustrate the balance between thermoregulation and water regulation. IntroductionS regularty percent of Australia is considered arid or semi-arid (Climate averages, 2000). Arid regions are characterized by receiving 100-250 millimeters of rain a year, and semi-arid regions are characterized by receiving 250-500 mm of rain per year (Costa, 1995). The average rainfall in Australia is only 165 mm per year (Climate averages, 2002). Not only are these regions faced with sparse rainfall, but they are also confronted with extreme temperatures. During the summer months of January and February, temperatures regularly exceed 40C in the arid regions (Climate averages, 2002). The temperatures are even more scorching for small animals that live close to the ground because the soil becomes much hotter than the air (Walsberg, 2000). Therefore, Australian mammals must have adaptations to cope with the heat and pretermit of available water. Additionally, they must have adaptations to balance thermoregulation with water regulation. This paper will address these adaptations and explain how they work. Homeothermy Mammals can be broadly classified as homeotherms, which factor their body temperature is relatively independent of the external environmental temperature (Ricklefs, 2001). Mammals and birds keep their body temperatures between 37C and 38C, however there are exceptions (Walsberg, 2000). Maintaining a constant internal temperature requires animals to have mechanisms to regulate their body temperature.

Adaptations of Mammals to Arid Australian Environments :: Environment Australia Animals Essays

Adaptations of Mammals to Arid Australian EnvironmentsAbstractHigh temperatures and low rainwater characterize much of Australia. It is hard to believe that animals can survive in arid conditions, much less prosper. Yet there is a whole range of mammals, among other life forms, that do. These animals survive because they have adaptations that allow them to live in the hot, dry conditions. The function of the adaptations is to balance thermoregulation with water gain and loss. For instance, many mammals that live in the desert obtain much or all of their water from the nourishment they consume. The reduced water intake is partially balanced through concentrated urine and dry faeces. Evaporative cooling helps to regulate temperature. To limit the water bewildered through evaporative cooling, mammals are nocturnal, have light coloration and other form features to help dissipate heat, and use microenvironments to reduce heat gain. This is only a short list of the many amazin g adaptations Australian mammals have to survive the harsh arid conditions however, it serves to illustrate the balance between thermoregulation and water regulation. Introduction cardinal percent of Australia is considered arid or semi-arid (Climate averages, 2000). Arid regions are characterized by receiving 100-250 millimeters of rain a year, and semi-arid regions are characterized by receiving 250-500 mm of rain per year (Costa, 1995). The average rainfall in Australia is only 165 mm per year (Climate averages, 2002). Not only are these regions faced with sparse rainfall, but they are also confronted with extreme temperatures. During the pass months of January and February, temperatures regularly exceed 40C in the arid regions (Climate averages, 2002). The temperatures are even more scorching for small animals that live close to the ground because the footing becomes much hotter than the air (Walsberg, 2000). Therefore, Australian mammals must have adaptations to cop e with the heat and lack of available water. Additionally, they must have adaptations to balance thermoregulation with water regulation. This paper get out address these adaptations and explain how they work. Homeothermy Mammals can be broadly classified as homeotherms, which means their body temperature is relatively independent of the external environmental temperature (Ricklefs, 2001). Mammals and birds keep their body temperatures between 37C and 38C, however there are exceptions (Walsberg, 2000). Maintaining a constant internal temperature requires animals to have mechanisms to regulate their body temperature.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Bullet in the Brain

English 102 Professor February 23, 2013 Bullet in the Brain The short story Bullet in the Brain is a story ab step up a character with a very distinct persona. The main character, Anders, is bingle who is established as being an eccentric character from the very bulgening. The setting takes place in a bank that is soon to be bombarded by marauders wear ski masks. Being a give-and-take connoisseur, Anders lets his profession override his critical thinking skills during the robbery. This puts the bank robbers patience to test, ultimately leading to Anders death at the end of the story.In the opening divide of the story, the author begins by explaining Anders character as a book critic known for the weary, elegant savagery with which he dispatched almost eitherthing he reviewed (542). The author begins by telling us this so we can get a grasp on what kind of personality traits the character has. This is a guarantee that everything coming out of Anders mouth will be something cr itical, which helps put us in the mindset for what is to come.Examining Anders critical personality traits, the way of life he interacts with others, and even his dying thoughts, we can begin to understand why his profession of being a book critic has put such a burden upon his life, ultimately placing him on the receiving end of a bullet in the brain. Taking a look at some of Anders mannerisms, we can see how he takes his occupation of being a book critic and lets it overtake his daily living. Take, for instance, the scene when one of the tellers puts her POSITION CLOSED sign in her window. Anders sarcastically says to the ladies in line Tragic, really.If theyre not chopping off the misemploy leg, or bombing your ancestral village, theyre closing their positions (542). This looks as if it was torn from a scene right out of a movie or a book, because what does closing your bank station a few minutes early take up to do with such dramatic instances as Anders mentions above? If I w ere one of the two ladies standing in front of him in line, I would think that he is a bit on the crazy side. Its not every day that you run into someone with as much satire in their word use, and Anders was overdramatizing the situation entirely.As soon as the two robbers enter the bank wearing business suits and ski masks, threatening the customers and tellers inside the bank, Anders reacts as if he is watching a movie or a play by blatantly stating great(p) skit, eh? The stern, brass-knuckled poetry of the dangerous classes (542). Its almost as if he is sitting there watching this whole scene happen from the critics very important person seat because who, in their right mind, would openly say something this taunting in the face of death? These two robbers have the power to take Anders life at the pull of a trigger and he is laughing in their faces.His word use in the above quote also makes me question his sanity. Who talks like that in everyday conversation? Anders has been ca ught up in playing the role of a critic for so long that he doesnt realize that life, in fact, isnt a well-played-out movie. One minute, he is exaggerating the severity of the situation when the teller closes her station, and the next minute he is laughing in the face of the robber when he has a gun held at his throat. This in itself shows that Anders doesnt fully understand the severity of the situation.He may have actually believed that it was all just an act judging by the way he reacted. Anders then found humor in the scene painted on the banks ceiling, but it isnt until the robber says Fuck with me again, youre history. Capiche? (543) that Anders lost it. He thinks that the use of the word capiche was the funniest thing he has heard all day, and at that precise moment he got rotating shaft in the head. It is during the last half of the story, after Anders gets shot in the head, that his character development is better understood.As the bullet passes through his brain, his li fe flashes before his eyes. Instead of remembering all of the good parts of his life, such as his family and his first love, he recalls the one thing in life that shaped him into the person that he is today. He remembers being out on a baseball field as kids and hearing Coyles cousin speak the life changing address fiddlings the best position they is (545). Anders was so entranced by these six words that it caused a new fascination that he never yet knew until this set. These words were the only things he remembered as he was put to death.Why is this? It is because that particular day while standing in the baseball field, Anders discovered his fascination with criticism. This is the turning point in Anders life because if it werent for Coyles cousin using such captivating word use that sparked much admiration and awe in Anders brain, mayhap he wouldnt have become a book critic. If he didnt become a book critic, then his life wouldnt have been so dramatically overtaken by his job , making him go crazy and smart off to the armed robbers, getting himself shot in the head.Anders love for criticism was so deep, that he let it control every aspect of his life beginning at a young age. What may have started as an innocent dear for something, turned into a dangerous obsession. It was the bank robber who pulled the trigger, but it was Anders lack of self-control that caused the robber to lose patience and take his life. Examining Anders critical personality and how it was developed, the way he interacted with others in public, and the last thoughts he had as he was shot in the head, we understand what exactly caused him to receive a bullet in the brain.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

The Restaurant that I’m Going to Own

It has always sounded extraordinary exiting to me to build my own restaurant. I can picture in my mind exactly how it would look and feel to my customers. I get out be able to put my personality into my restaurant. I am thinking now about my restaurants interior, exterior, and, of course, menu. The interior of the restaurant that I am going to own its going to be oversize and spacious with an extra room for special events. Its going to boast nature decorations like plants, flowers, and fruits.Its going to have nature colors like light brown, dark brown, green (gardenia green color). Its going to have a light hardwood appal that will make the costumer feel very comfortable, the music that will be played its going to be relaxing instrumental music and proceed music on Saturday nights. It will have three different sizes of tables like 4 people tables, 6 people table and group tables ( 10 -12 chairs). The waiters are going to wear a comfortable uniform that will represent the resta urant colors.The exterior of my future restaurant it going to have a big and decorative sign that will be visible from long distance. It will be located in front of the beach and the walls are going to be made of wood and bamboo with the nature color of them, the roof will be made as a Hawaiian style. The principal door will be made of bamboo with a small glass window. Its decoration will represent an exotic Hawaiian style with a lot of leafs and flowers, and a beautiful fountain, and a big palm tree in front of the restaurant that will give to the customers the feeling of being in an island.Its going to have a big parking lot for the customers and another one for the staff. We are going to offer a scrumptious and exquisite menu to our customers, offering Hawaiian diet and exotic beverages. There will be a variety of Hawaiian food in our menu like Kalua Pork, Hawaiian BBQ Chicken, Saimin, Seafood, Salads, Mahi Mahi Burger, and much more. The prices will metamorphose on the menu, but they will be affordable for everyone who wants to enjoy of our Hawaiian menu.Our main dishes will be the Kalua Pork, Hawaiian Chicken Teriyaki, steamed rice, vegetables, and salad. We will have some variety of dessert like ice cream, Lime Jello Cheesecake, Pies, and exotic fruits. Our menu will include free water and a delicious variety of appetizers that will make the customers feel happy to be in our restaurant. I have enjoyed preparing to construct my own restaurant. Of course, it is a lot of work, but it is general a completely enjoyable experience. I hope everyone can find something they love to do as I have.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Pyramus and Thisbe Summary Essays and Term Papers Essay

CharactersBaldo He was one of the main characters in the short story. He was Leons jr. brother. Baldo was unperturbed man, and he was quiet. He was the narrator of the story. Leon He was the oldest brother of Baldo. He was the husband of female horse. maria called him Noel. maria She was a beautiful and lovely. Her forehead was on a level with his mouth, her nails were long, but they were not painted, and have a small dimple appeared momentarily high up on her right cheek. She was tall and very still. Her fragrancy was like a morning when papayas are in bloom. Labang The bull of Leon and Baldo.Father He was mildest tempered, gentlest man. He was the induce of Baldo and Leon.Mother He was the mother of Baldo and Leon.Aurelia She was the sister of Baldo and Leon. compact / Synopsis mare was a wife of Leon. She was lovely and beautiful. Her fragrant like a morning when papayas are in bloom. Leon was lived in far place of Nagrebcan. Leon brought maria to Nagrebcan to introduce to his baffle. The couple enjoys talking while in traveled riding in the cart hitch to Labang. Baldo who is quiet and observing his brother and spouse. When they arrived home, Baldo went to the manner of his father. The room is quiet and dark. His father was smoking while sat in the big armchair by the western window. And they talk about Maria. Afterwards the door opened, and Leon and Maria came in. Baldo looked to Maria and went out to watered Labang which his father told to him.CharacterizationBaldo is the narrator of the story because he is the one who relates us what happened to the story. Were Baldo is the younger brother of Leon. Baldo is a quiet person. It is very noticeable that Baldo is observing his brother Leon and spouse how is Maria. When his father asks him Was she afraid of Labang? Baldo lied and says No, Father, she was not afraid. Even though Maria afraid. It means that Baldo like Maria as a wife of Leon but inside, he also admires the beauty of Maria. In here, the main characters were the couple Leon and Maria. Leon has a strong personality because he did not afraid to acquaint Maria to his father as her wife. He was very proud of Maria as her wife.Maria truly love Leon because she fight for what shebelieve was right, it doesnt social occasion if the world told her that its wrong. I could say that Maria and the mother of Leon plays and represent the Filipino women. The father of Baldo has a deep personality. He was a responsibly father because he use his righteous course as a head of the family. It only means that the father or the man is the authority. He doesnt destiny Leon to go to the wrong way. So, he makes any(prenominal) trials to Maria trying to test Marias characteristic, her attitude, her looks, how she talks and the way she handle the situation. His mother was a responsibly mother. She does the light of the family and represents the Filipino women.SettingsThe setting of the story was in Nagrebcan, Leons hometown. This stor y takes place in a farm where people would usually ride in carabao. The place was in the local province. In the story, Maria who was Leons wife described physically and with her posture as a conservative and traditionalist which would in all probability described as a Filipino woman. As an alternative, they took a shortcut in a field. In my opinion, one can visualize that there is some kind of a test for the two of them. Maria must surpass that trial. It was as there family of Leon is trying to test Marias characteristic, her attitude, her looks, how she talks and the way she handle the situation.PlotThe plot is compose of inciting action, rising action, climax, locomote action, and conclusion. The inciting action was when She stepped down to the Carretela of Ca Celin with a quick, delicate grace. She look lovely, she was tall. She looked up to my brother with a smile, and her forehead was on level with his mouth. The rising action was when they took the dry bed of Waig as a subst itute of passing the Camino Real and it was the wish of there father to go by Waig. The climax of the story was when Maria told Leon that she was afraid of his father in law maybe his father thinking of not liking her. The falling action came when Leon was searching for their father and her mother told them that his leg is bothering him again. The conclusion was when Baldo cross the threshold of his father and ask him about Maria. Afterwards the door opened and Leon and Maria came in. Baldo looked to Maria so lovely and went out to watered Labang which his father told him.ThemesThe theme of the story is Love makes Maria and Leon go straight whateverstruggles come go away be ignore to them. I dont know if there relationship will last long because Maria is a city young woman while Leon is a barrio boy. Reactions of the storyMy reaction of the story is the story is good and it reflects to the modern youth even if the story is very old. I describe Maria as an example of Filipino women and also her attitude as a mahinhin. The couple Leon and Maria faces many trials while in traveled to Nagrebcan. Even though, Maria passed those trials. So, therefore Maria is very understanding kind of girl. The story talks about the characteristic of Maria, her attitude, her looks, how she talks and the way she handle the situation that riding a bull and passed through Waig. Therefore, basically a woman creates for men.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Succubus Dreams CHAPTER 1

I wished the hombre on top of me would hurry up because I was getting bored.Unfortunately, it didnt seem same he was going to finish any sentence soon. Brad or Brian or whatever his name was thrust by, eyes squeezed shut with such concentration that you would have apprehension having sex was on par with brain surgery or lifting steel beams.Brett, I panted. It was time to pull step to the fore the big guns.He indeterminateed whizz eye. Bryce.Bryce. I put on my most passionate, orgasmic face. Pleasepleasedont stop.His other eye opened. Both went wide.A minute later, it was completely oer.Sorry, he gasped, rolling mangle me. He looked mortified. I dont k outrightdidnt meanIts okay, baby. I felt only a little bad about using the dont stop trick on him. It didnt always work, tho for some guys, planting that seed completely undid them. It was amazing.And really, that wasnt entirely a lie. The sex itself had been mediocre, only when the rush afterwardthe feel of his bearing and his spirit pouring into meyeah. That was pretty amazing. It was what a succubus c are me literally lived for.He gave me a weary smile. The energy hed had now flowed in my body. Its loss had exhausted him, fire him out. Hed sleep soon and would probably continue sleeping a great deal over the next few days. His soul had been a good champion, and Id interpreted a lot of it as well as his life itself. Hed now live a few years less, thanks to me.I tried not to reckon about that as I hurriedly put on my clothes. Instead, I focused on how Id d unitary what I had to do for my own survival. Plus, my unredeemed masters required me to seduce and corrupt good souls on a regular basis. Bad men might realize me feel less guilty, simply they didnt fulfill Hells quota.Bryce seemed surprised at my abrupt departure but was too worn out to fight it. I promised to call him having no intention of doing so and slipped out of the room as he lapsed into unconsciousness.Id provided cleared his front door in the lead shape-shifting. Id come to him as a tall, sable-haired woman but now once again wore my preferred shape, petite with hazel-green eyes and light brown hair that flirted with gold. Like most of my life, my features danced between states, never entirely subsidence on wizard.I put Bryce out of my mind, just like I did with most men I slept with, and drove across town to what was rapidly suitable my second home. It was a tan, stucco condo, set into a community of other condos that tried desperately to be as hip as new winding in Seattle could manage. I parked my Pas sit down out front, fished my key out of my purse, and let myself inside.The condo was still and quiet, wrapped in darkness. A nearby clock intercommunicate me it was three in the morning. Walking toward the bedroom, I shape-shifted again, swapping my clothes for a red nightgown.I froze in the bedrooms doorway, surprised to feel my breath catch in my throat. Youd think after all this time, I woul d have gotten used to him, that he wouldnt affect me like this. But he did. Every time. solidification lay sprawled on the bed, one arm tossed over his head. His breathing came ambiguous and fitful, and the sheets lay in a tangle around his long, lean body. Moonlight muted out the color of his hair, but in the sun, its light brown would pick up a russet glow. Seeing him, studying him, I felt my heart swell in my chest. Id never expected to feel this way about anyone again, not after centuries of feeling soempty. Bryce had meant nothing to me, but this man before me meant everything.I slid into bed beside him, and his blazon instantly went around me. I think it was instinctual. The connection between us was so deep that even while unconscious, we couldnt stay away from each other.I pressed my cheek to Seths chest, and his skin warmed mine as I fell asleep. The guilt from Bryce faded, and soon, t present was only Seth and my love for him.I slipped some immediately into a pipe drea m. Except, well, I wasnt actually in it, at least not in the active sense. I was watching myself, seeing the events unfold as though at a movie. Only, unlike a movie, I could feel every detail. The sights, the soundsit was almost more vivid than real life.The other Georgina was in a kitchen, one I didnt recognize. It was bright and modern, far doubler than anything I could consider a non-cook like me needing. My dream-self stood at the sink, arms elbow-deep in sudsy water that smelled like oranges. She was hand-washing dishes, which surprised my real-self but was doing a shoddy job, which did not surprise me. On the floor, an actual dishwasher lay in pieces, thus explaining the need for manual labor.From another(prenominal) room, the sounds of Sweet Home Alabama carried to my ears. My dream-self hummed along as she washed, and in that surreal, dream sort of way, I could feel her happiness. She was content, filled with a joy so absolutely perfect, I could barely comprehend it. Eve n with Seth, Id rarely ever felt so happy and I was pretty damned happy with him. I couldnt imagine what could make my dream-self feel this way, particularly while doing something as mundane as washing dishes.I woke up.To my surprise, it was full morning, bright and sunny. Id had no sense of time passing. The dream had seemed to last only a minute, yet the nearby alarm clock claimed six hours had passed. The loss of the happiness my dream-self had experienced made me ache.Weirder than that, I feltnot right. It took me a moment to peg the problem I was drained. The life energy I needed to survive, the energy Id stolen from Bryce, was almost gone. In fact, I had less now than Id had before going to bed with him. It made no sense. A burst of life like that should have lasted a couple weeks at least, yet I was nearly as wiped out as hed been. I wasnt low enough to start losing my shape-shifting ability, but Id need a new fix indoors a couple of days.Whats wrong?Seths sleepy parting c ame from beside me. I rolled over and found him propped on one elbow, watching me with a small, sweet smile.I didnt extremity to explain what had happened. Doing so would mean elaborating on what Id done with Bryce, and while Seth theoretically knew what I did to survive, ignorance really was bliss.Nothing, I lied. I was a good liar.He touched my cheek. I missed you last night.No, you didnt. You were busy with Cady and ONeill.His smile turned wry, but even as it did, I could see his eyes start to civilize on the dreamy, inward look he got when he thought about the characters in his novels. Id made kings and generals beg for my love in my long life, yet some days, even my charms couldnt compete with the people who lived in Seths head.Fortunately, today wasnt one of those days, and his attention focused back on me.Nah. They dont look as good in a nightgown. Thats very Anne Sexton, by the way. Like candy store cinnamon hearts.Only Seth would use a bipolar poet as a compliment. I glan ced pile and ran an absentminded hand over the red silk. This does look pretty good, I admitted. I might look better in this than I do naked.He sc strikeed. No, Thetis. You do not.I smiled, as I always did, when he used the pet name he coined for me. In Greek mythology, Thetis had been Achilles mother, a shape-shifting goddess won by a determined mortal. And then, in what was an astonishingly aggressive move for him, Seth flipped me onto my back and began kissing my neck.Hey, I said, putting up a half-hearted struggle. We dont have time for this. I have stuff to do. And I want breakfast.Noted, he mumbled, moving on to my mouth. I stopped my complaining. Seth was a wonderful kisser. He gave the class of kisses that melted into your mouth and filled you with sweetness. They were like cotton candy.But there was no real melting to be had, not for us. With a well-practiced sense of clock that you could probably set a watch to, he pulled away from the kiss and sat up, removing his hands as well. Still smiling, he looked down at me and my humiliating sprawl.I smiled back, squelching the small pang of regret that always came at these moments of retreat.But that was the way it was with us, and honestly, we had a pretty good system going when one considered all the complications in our relationship. My friend Hugh once had joked that all women steal mens souls if theyre together long enough. In my case, it didnt taken years of bickering. A too-long kiss would suffice. Such was the life of a succubus. I didnt make the rules, and I had no way to stop the involuntary energy theft that came from intimate somatic contact. I could, however, control whether that physical contact happened in the first place, and I made sure it didnt. I ached for Seth, but I wouldnt steal his life as I had Bryces.I sat as well, ready to get up, but Seth must have been feeling bold this morning. He wrapped his arms around my waist and shifted me onto his lap, pressure sensation himself again st my back so that his lightly stubbled face buried itself in my neck and hair. I felt his body tremble with the intake of a heavy, deep breath. He exhaled it just as slowly, like he sought control of himself, and then strengthened his grip on me.Georgina, he breathed against my skin.I unkindly my eyes, and the playfulness was gone. A dark intensity wrapped around us, one that burned with both desire and a fear of what might come.Georgina, he repeated. His component part was low, husky. I felt like melting again. Do you know why they say succubi visit men in their sleep?Why? My own congressman was small.Because I dream about you every night. In most circumstances, that would have sounded trite, but from him, it was powerful and hungry.I squeezed my eyes tighter as a swirl of emotions danced within me. I wanted to cry. I wanted to make love to him. I wanted to scream. It was all too ofttimes sometimes. Too much emotion. Too much danger. Too much, too much.Opening my eyes, I shift ed so that I could see his face. We held each others gazes, both of us wanting more and unable to give or take it. Breaking the look first, I slipped regretfully from his embrace. Come on. Lets go eat.Seth lived in Seattles university district the U-district to locals and was within easy walking distance to various(a) shops and restaurants that lay adjacent to the University of Washingtons campus. We found breakfast at a small caf?, and omelets and conversation soon banished the earlier awkwardness. Afterward, we wandered idly up University Way, holding hands. I had errands to run, and he had writing to do, yet we were reluctant to part.Seth suddenly stopped walking. Georgina.Hmm?His eyebrows rose as he stared off at something across the street. John Cusack is standing over there.I followed his incredulous gaze to where a man very like Mr. Cusack did indeed stand, smoking a cigarette as he leaned against a building. I sighed.Thats not John Cusack. Thats Jerome.Seriously?Yup. I to ld you he looked like John Cusack.Keyword looked. That guy doesnt look like him. That guy is him.Believe me, hes not. Seeing Jeromes impatient expression, I let go of Seths hand. Be right back.I crossed the street, and as the distance closed between my boss and me, Jeromes aura washed over my body. either immortals have a unique signature, and a demon like Jerome had an especially strong one. He felt like waves and waves of roiling heat like when you open an oven and dont stand far enough back.Make it fast, I told him. Youre ruining my romantic interlude. Like usual.Jerome dropped the cigarette and put it out with his black Kenneth Cole oxford. He glanced disdainfully around. What, here? Come on, Georgie. This isnt romantic. This place isnt even a pit stop on the road to romance.I put an angry hand on one hip. Whenever Jerome interrupted my personal life, it usually heralded a series of mishaps Id never wanted to be involved in. Something told me this was no exception. What do yo u want?You.I blinked. What?Weve got a come across tonight. An all staff meeting.When you say all staff, do you mean like all staff?The last time Seattles supervising archdemon had gathered everyone in the area together, it had been to inform us that our local imp wasnt meeting expectations. Jerome had let us all tell the imp good-bye and then banished the poor guy off to the fiery depths of Hell. It was kind of sad, but then my friend Hugh had replaced him, so Id gotten over it. I hoped this meeting wouldnt have a similar purpose.He gave me an vexed look, one that said I was clearly wasting his time. Thats the definition of all staff, isnt it?When is it?Seven. At Peter and Codys. Dont be late. Your presence is essential.Shit. I hoped this wasnt actually my going away party. Id been on pretty good behavior lately. Whats this about?Find out when you get there. Dont be late, he repeated.Stepping off the main thoroughfare and into the shadow of a building, the demon vanished.A feeling of dread spread through me. Demons were never to be trusted, particularly when they looked like quirky movie stars and issued enigmatic invitations.Everything okay? Seth asked me when I rejoined him.I considered. In as much as it ever is.He wisely chose not to pursue the subject, and he and I eventually spaced to take care of our respective tasks. I was dying to know what this meeting could be about but not nearly as much as I wanted to know what had made me lose my energy overnight. And as I ran my errands groceries, oil change, Macys I also found the strange, brief dream replaying in my head. How could such a short dream have been so vivid? And why couldnt I stop thinking about it?The puzzle distracted me so much that seven rolled around without me knowing it. Groaning, I headed off for my friend Peters place, speeding the whole way. Great. I was going to be late. Even if this meeting didnt concern me and my impending unemployment, I might end up getting a taste of Jeromes wra th after all.About six feet from the apartment door, I felt the hum of immortal signatures. A lot of them. My friends auras, familiar and beloved, sang to me instantly. A few others gave me pause as I tried to remember who they belonged to the great Puget Sound area had a host of hellish employees that I almost never interacted with. One signature I didnt recognize at all. And oneone seemed almost familiar. I couldnt quite put my finger on who it belonged to, though.I started to knock, decided an all staff meeting deserved more than jeans and a T-shirt, and shape-shifted my outturn into a brown dress with a low-cut, surplice top. My hair settled into a neat bun. I raised my hand to the door.An annoyed vampire I barely remembered let me in. She inclined her chin to me by way of greeting and then continued her conversation with another vampire Id only met once. I think they worked out of Tacoma, which as I far as I was concerned might as well be annexed to Hell itself.My friend Hugh , dark-haired with a large frame, paced around while chatting animatedly on his cell phone. Jerome lounged in an armchair with a martini. His little-seen lieutenant demonesses stood in a corner, keeping to themselves as always. Peter and Cody my good friends and the vampires who lived here laughed about something in the kitchen with a few other hellish employees I only distantly knew.It could have been an ordinary cocktail party, almost a celebration. I hoped that meant no smiting tonight since that would have really put a damper on the atmosphere. No one had noticed my arrival except for Jerome.Ten minutes late, he growled.Hey, its a fashionable My words were cut off as a tall, Amazonian blonde nearly barreled into me.Oh You must be Georgina Ive been dying to meet you.I raised my eyes past spandex-clad double-D breasts and up into big blue eyes with impossibly long lashes. A huge set of beauty pageant dentition smiled down at me.My moments of speechlessness were few, but they d id happen. This walking Barbie doll was a succubus. A really new one. So shiny and new, in fact, it was a wonder she didnt squeak. I recognized her age both from her signature and her appearance. No succubus with any sense would have shape-shifted into that. She was trying too hard, haphazardly piling together an salmagundi of pseudo male-fantasy body parts. It left her with a Frankensteinian creation that was both jaw-dropping and probably anatomically impossible.Unaware of my astonishment and disdain, she took my hand and nearly broke it in a mammoth handshake.I cant wait to work with you, she continued. I am so ready to make men everywhere suffer.I finally found my voice. Whowho are you?Shes your new best friend, a voice nearby said. My, my look at you. Tawnys going to have a tough standard to keep up with.A man elbowed his way toward us, and whatever curiosity Id felt in the other succubus presence disappeared like ashes in the wind. I forgot she was even there. My stomach twist ed into knots as I IDd the mystery signature. Cold sweat broke out along the back of my neck and seeped into the delicate fabric of the dress.The guy approaching was about as tall as me which wasnt tall and had a dark, olive-toned complexion. There was more pomade on his head than black hair. His suit was nice definitely not off the rack. A thin-lipped smile spread over his face at my dumbstruck discomfiture.Little Letha, all grown up and out to play with the adults, eh? He spoke low, voice pitched for my ears alone.Now, in the grand scheme of things, immortals like me had little to fear in this world. There were, however, three people I feared immensely. One of them was Lilith the Succubus Queen, a being of such formidable power and beauty that I would have sold my soul again for one kiss. Someone else who scared me was a nephilim named Roman. He was Jeromes half-human son and had good reason to want to hunt me down and destroy me some day. The third person who filled me with fear was this man standing before me.His name was Niphon, and he was an imp, just like my friend Hugh. And, like all imps, Niphon really only had two jobs. One was to run administrative errands for demons. The other, his primary one, was to make contracts with mortals, brokering and buying souls for Hell.And he was the imp who had bought mine.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Why Young People Should Be Encouraging To Develop A Personal Action Plan

Describe how to manage risks associated with conflicts or dilemmas between an individuals rights and the duty of care. In any type of work setting, in that location will al appearances be different opinions on certain things that will lead to conflicts or dilemmas. Work setting where there are children involves is no different. Conflicts happen al virtually everywhere. In a school setting there could be conflicts or dilemmas between the children, the childrens family, staff members and teachers. The most important thing is to do the right decision in favour of protecting and safeguarding the concerned child.There are various ways to deal with risks associate conflicts and dilemmas. persevering exercise of duty of care must be balanced with childrens rights and parents responsibilities. The duty of care could conflict with childrens rights to have experiences which facilitate their development and learning. gainsay and risk taking activities and in childrens play is essential. This helps them to learn to predict and avoid dangerous situations. When a practitioner seeks to wrap the children in cotton wool that is not letting them discover and taking risks with a limit, then the practitioner is carrying her duty of care too far.Allowing children to explore with the practitioners guidance is vital in a childs development. Sometimes rights may riposte precedence over duty of care. Practitioners should discharge their duty of care in ways that support childrens rights acquire life skills through learning how to cope with risky situations. Making children and young people aware of potential hazards and dangers is very important to help children exact between right and wrong. In other situations, duty of care may prevail over rights.A practitioners duty of care to protect children from misapply must be balanced with families rights to have their private information treated confidentially. A practitioner must avoid intruding into their lives in a way that infring e their rights or the responsibilities of their parents. If a practitioner comes across a serious suspicion in a case of abuse, he/she must report at present to the Child Services and leave everything in their hands. If individuals insist on doing something that you disagree with, you can only advise and encourage them.You cannot force them to do anything. For example, if an individual refuses to take medication and their well-being depends on this medication, you cannot force them to take the medication. You should immediately contact your supervisor / manager and seek advice. You should also make sure you record what has happened and the natural process taken. Professional guidance and support is always useful to help in such situations practitioners come across. It is important to take second opinion of a high authority when deciding on such conflicts or dilemmas.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Reviewing Arguements Whether Scientific Management

The topic I carry chosen for my essay assignment would be option 1 which is reviewing the arguments for and against the literary argument whether scientific guidance creates efficient organizations. In the origination of today, it has been known that scientific management developed over the years and is applied in the e reallyday unravel life. Frederick Winslow Taylor is the person who discovered scientific management, also known as Taylorism.It is a theory about management that analyses and synthesize the workflow of a work go into but the main objective is to improve the efficiency of the economy, especially in labour party productivity based on five principles as described by Buchanan(2010, pg 423). The first principle of Taylorism is to have A clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers whereby the author Chris Grey(2010, pg 40) disagreed that it was an added advantage to an organization. He described it as a st swangy that transfers the po wer from workers to managers.It reduces autonomy among workers, work conditions and threatened unemployment. It is more of a radical and near complete separation between planning and decision- devising, where managers would muddle the decision temporary hookup workers carry out the order. The outcome of this caused workers to leave their strains and go on strike, time and motion studies were banned in US defence plants and even owners and senior managers were against Taylorism as they think that the system has given the managers a higher say-so than them.The second principle, The use of scientific methods to determine the best way of doing a personal credit line was brought up to a disagreement by Paul Adler where he claims that Taylorism represents a fundamental emancipatory philosophy of a line of merchandise design. His research reveals two fundamental flaws in the prototype view that is based on two psychological assumptions. The first one is that work will only be motiva ting to the extent that it resembles free assume and the second that workers need to have autonomy. Adler states that the standard critique of Taylorism is that it presents the payoff of the workers as the only source of motivation to get them going.Adler also argued that when workers develop positive feelings towards their job and perceive Taylorism as an effective way of accomplishing the task, then low individual and team autonomy can co-exist with high morale. (Buchanan,2010,pg 444 445). Buchanan (2010, pg 428) also commented that in that respect are several(prenominal) critiques that disagree with Taylorism bringing efficiency to an organization based on this principle. The first one was because it assumes that the motivation of an employee was to gain maximum payoff for their hard work and overlook the importance of the other rewards such as creation given recognition and securement.This will cause workers to feel that they are not appreciated and are world used as too ls to do the job. Secondly, it failed to explain to the workers the use of implementing new procedures, being timed and closely supervised all the time. Workers will not enjoy being watched all the time, as it would make them feel like a prisoner. It also makes them feel uncomfortable as to not having any privacy at work. However, the Gilbreths came up with their own study through developing Taylorism showing their agreement with Taylors second principle. Frank Gilbreth tudied motion and time of job to analyse how long it would top for a person to complete the given task which then lead to the development of a system called therbligs which is formed from elementary movements, each having its own image and colour. His research then lead him to developing a standard time for each job element, and this is still being used till today for scheming the wage payment systems. As for Lilian Gilbreth, she contributed psychologically. She studied motions to eliminate unnecessary actions and to reduce fatigue watchd by workers.She figured that if she could succeed it would increase the work rate of a worker to maximize productivity. She introduced rest periods, placing chairs at the workplace resting area, and instituted holidays with pay. Changes were also made to the heating, lighting and ventilation of the workplace. This may have been a new renewing for the workers as it improved their work life and gave them motivation to do their jobs. (Buchanan, 2010,pg 429 430). The third principle is Scientific selection of the person to do the newly designed job.Henry Ford did a great job in doing so as he became famous for his way of mass-production that benefited his organization. Ford applied the principles of rationalization whereby employees are allocated aboveboard tasks that are carefully designed to gain maximum efficiency from the workers. Ford replaced skilled craftsmen with machines therefore eliminating the need for skilled workers. He boosted up production of the cars that could only be done with just manpower but critics argued that Fords technique was destroying craftsmanship and de-skilling jobs.In the workers view, this was more of an issue about identifying the right task for butcherly workers to do who would otherwise not enjoy their work and be demoralized which could lead to legion(predicate) problems later on if not solved. The same critics also assert that short cycle repetitive jobs are the cause of workers being treated like a machine, alienated and stressful. (Buchanan, 2010,pg 431 435) A research on the Braverman thesis shows more criticisms were made about Braverman and his deskilling thesis that disagrees with this principle as well. Buchanan cited from (high noon and Blyton, 2007 (pp. 57-159) Fincham and Rhodes, 2005) which shows a couple of criticism such as Taylorism ignoring alternative management strategies like making a choice between using Taylorism to deskill a job position or to let the workers gain autonom y. Employee empowerment would definitely provide better worker interchangeability that allows better assembly line balancing. At the same time, employees will not be deskilled and the management gets to take control over the labour process. Another criticism was that it exaggerated about the managements objective of controlling labour.The thesis underestimated the complexity and diversity about management objectivity and plurality of interests. Direct labour will take up a small proportion of the total cost of a product and it may not be significant as it was in the past compared to today. The third criticism was that workers were being treated passively. There have been unions and individual resistance towards deskilling, as workers were not being treated sensibly as they were forced to do a specific job that does not require their skill they have to be put to good use.In the end, the workers skill will deteriorate until he loses it completely. The next one was the underestimatio n of the employees consent and accommodation whereby workers will welcome Taylorism once they understand the importance of it and traffic pattern it for years. Fifth, it ignores gender. In the past, men have ever so been the one who have been developing working skills and were more capable of doing work. That brought a disadvantage to the women as they were being compared to men. They unnoted the possibilities that women may also be able to do other jobs such as office jobs. Buchanan,2010, pg 440 441) The fourth principle is The training of the selected worker to perform the job in the way specified and from this principle came about the upskilling position which gave importance towards human capital. Companies invested in their workforce by providing education and training to help them have a better understanding of their work and how to do it right. This will help managers to identify which worker is capable of doing which job they will be assigned to. in addition that, it wi ll generate higher level of skills among employees that most work required during those times.The fifth principle is the Surveillance of workers through the use of hierarchies of authority and close inadvertence. Harry Braverman developed the Braverman where he saw scientific management as a method of directly controlling fellow employees. Managers reduced the autonomy and address of workers in how they perform their jobs, thereby deskilling their work in order to gain more control over them. Braveman concluded two types of deskilling technique and they are, firstly, organizational deskilling which involves Taylors separation of task conception from task execution that all problems are to be solved by the supervisor.The second one is technological deskilling that is replacing the workers with machines to achieve a better rate of production. (Buchanan, 2010,pg 436 437) Max Weber also agreed to this principle stating that rational-legal authority was increasingly supplanting forms of authority which comes from a set of rules, procedures and duties. This authority is empowered to the person in charge, for example, the Chief Executive Officer of an organization. Eventhough the person holding the position may change, the empowerment the job position holds still maintains the same.There always have to be someone who oversees the entire organization and manage it. Just like a country, without the government the country will not be in order but instead be in chaos. Weber defines this type of organization being set by rules and a series of hierarchical relationship. It helps make use of principles of systemization, division of labour and authority. Weber stated that his theory represented the most technical and rational form of an organization and it was confirmed when his theory stretch out like wildfire throughout the state as organizations were implementing his theory. Grey,2009, pg 22-23) From what I have studied about scientific management and its theories abo ut how it has been applied throughout the years I would agree that scientific management does creates an efficient organization. It has dramatically improved our work life today if compared to the old days where workers were mistreated, low rate of production and many more. Scientific management have been developing over the years and along side it there were ups and downs but I have to say that in the world today, it has definitely brought significant changes to organizations.As I have worked before at several hotels, I have experienced these changes such as following procedures and rules while working which is fine by me as it tells me what I should do and be more systematic. While I was working in the F&B department, everyday there will be tasks assigned to each staff so that everyone knows what they are supposed to do and to prevent miscommunication between one another. I felt very comfortable and I did my job well following it with little problems. Another example would be with the help of technology everything goes faster and smoother through my experience in the front office department.In the front office department, guest records used to be manually written down in a book and it would be a hassle to find out if the guest stayed there before but now we have computers where we can just enter a guests information within a minute and check it at anytime and any second. Everything will be recorded in the computer therefore making it available to other departments so that they could get information on a certain guest. In conclusion, surely there are advantages and disadvantages in scientific management but that is what that makes it improve and develop over the years.There may be people who disagree with me but I stand firm on my decision that scientific management does create an efficient organization and I also look forward to see what new changes it will bring in the near future. Referances Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. (2010),Organizational Behaviour, Harlow, financial Times/ Prentice Hall (7th edition), Grey, C. (2009) A very short and fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying organizations, (2nd edition), London, Sage Publications Ltd Noon M. and Blyton P. (2007), The Realities of Work, (3rd edition), Gordonsville,Palgrave Macmillan

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Fin 419 Week 5 Team Assignment with Answers

Principles of managerial Finance FIN/419 P12. 4 Break even analysis. Barry Carter is considering opening a music store. He wants to estimate the number of CDs he must care to break even. The CDs will be sold for $13. 98 each, variable operating(a) costs are $10. 48 per CD, and annual fixed operating costs are $73,500. A) Find the operating breakeven point in number of CDs. Q= FC / P- VC Q= 73,500 / 13. 98 10. 48 Q= 21,000 CDs B) Calculate the total operating costs at the breakeven volume found in social function a. EBIT= Q x (P VC) FC EBIT= 21,000 x (13. 98 10. 48) 73,500 EBIT= 21,000 x 3. 5 73,500EBIT= 0 C) If Barry estimates that at a borderline he can sell 2,000 CDs per month, should he go into the music business? 2,000 CDs per month x 12 months = 24,000 CDs. Since the operating breakeven point in number of CDs is 21,000, this factor that Barry will sell 3,000 more CDs that will be a profit. Depending on Barrys outcome of the music store, if he were to go into the music business and sell 2,000 CDs a month, he would make a profit. The profit would not be that much more above the operating breakeven point however, it will still be a profit. I would take the chance and go into the music business.D) How much EBIT will Barry realize if he sells the minimum 2,000 CDs per month noted in part c? EBIT= Q x (P VC) FC EBIT= 24,000 x (13. 98 10. 48) 73,500 EBIT= 24,000 x 3. 5 73,500 EBIT= 10,500 P12-11 a. $0. 38 b. $1. 28 c. $1. 94 Ebit $24,600 $30,600 $35,000 less interest $9,600 $9,600 $9,600 shed light on profits before taxes $15,000 $21,000 $25,400 Les Taxes $6,000 $8,400 $10,160 benefit profits after taxes $9,000 $12,600 $15,240 Less preferred stock dividends $7,500 $7,500 $7,500 Earings available for common $1,500 $5,100 $7,740 Earings per share $0. 8 $1. 28 $1. 94 a b c P12-24. consolidativeoptimal capital structure Intermediate a. Debt Ratio 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% EBIT $2,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 Less Interest 0 120,000 270,000 540,000 900,000 EBT $2,000,000 $1,880,000 1,730,000 $1,460,000 $1,100,000 ? Taxes 40% 800,000 752,000 692,000 584,000 440,000 Net profit $1,200,000 $1,128,000 $1,038,000 $ 876,000 $ 660,000 Less Preferred dividends 200,000 200,000 200,000 200,000 200,000 Profits available to ?common stock $1,000,000 $ 928,000 $ 838,000 $ 676,000 $ 460,000 shares outstanding 200,000 170,000 140,000 110,000 80,000 EPS $ 5. 00 $ 5. 46 $ 5. 99 $ 6. 15 $ 5. 75 b. Debt 0%Debt 15% Debt 30%Debt 45% Debt 60% c. The optimal capital structure would be 30% debt and 70% equity because this is the debt/equity mix that maximizes the price of the common stock. Chapter 16 trouble 16. For each of the loanword amounts, interest rates, annual payments, and loan terms shown in the following table, calculate the annual interest paid each year oer the term of the loan, assuming that the payments are made at the end of each year. Loan Amount Rate Annual Paym ent Term (in years) Interest pay Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 A $14,000 10% $4,416 4 $1400 $1098. 40 $766. 64 $401. 70 B 17,500 12% 10,355 2 2100 1109. 40 C 2,400 13% 1,017 3 312 220. 35 116. 79 D 49,000 14% 14,273 5 6860 5822. 18 4639. 06 3290. 31 1752. 3 E 26,500 16% 7191 6 4240 3767. 84 3220. 13 2584. 80 1847. 80 992. 89 Problem 16. 5 Lease versus acquire Northwest Lumber Company needs to expand its facilities. To do so, the soused must acquire a machine costing $80,000. The machine can be leased or purchased. The firm is in the 40% tax bracket, and its after-tax cost of debt is 9%. The terms of the lease and purchase plans are as follows Lease The leasing governing body requires end-of-year payments of $19,800 over 5 years. All maintenance costs will be paid by the lessor insurance and other costs will be borne by the lessee.The lessee will exercise its option to purchase the asset for $24,000 at termination of the lease. Purchase If the firm purchase s the machine, its cost of $80,000 will be financed with a 5-year, 14% loan requiring equal end-of-year payments of $23,302. The machine will be depreciated under MACRS utilize a 5-year recovery period. (See Table 3. 2 on page 108 for the applicable depreciation percentages. ) The firm will pay $2,000 per year for a service contract that covers all maintenance costs insurance and other costs will be borne by the firm.The firm plans to keep the equipment and use it beyond its 5-year recovery period. a. Determine the after-tax cash outflows of Northwest Lumber under each alternative. Year Lease after-tax outflows Purchase after-tax outflows 1 $11,880 $13,622 2 11,880 10,459. 71 3 11,880 15,391. 10 4 11,880 18,512. 89 5 35,880 19,516. 93 b. Find the present treasure of each after-tax cash outflow stream, using the after-tax cost of debt. Year PV of outflows (Lease) PV of outflows (Purchase) 1 $10,893. 96 $12,491. 37 2 10,002. 96 8,807 3 9,171. 6 11,881. 93 4 8,411. 04 13,107. 13 5 23 ,322 12,686. 00 Total $61,801. 32 $58,973. 51 c. Which alternativelease or purchasewould you recommend? Why? The alternative that I would recommend is the purchase option because it has the lower present value of after-tax cash outflows as well as the most desirable. It is the most desirable because by purchasing the machine would be a less costly alternative. References Gitman, L. J. (2009). Principles of Managerial Finance (12th ed. ). Retrieved from https//ecampus. phoenix. edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader. aspx.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Baler – Reaction Paper

We spent two hours inside classroom. I power saw a lot, discovered new ideas, thought of filling my senses, felt all the lines in the movie. But when I was about to go out, there seems to be something lacking. Its desire something is not reaching my stomach. It was like turn in my throat too early. The movie is acceptable. Full of good intentions. Intentions to deliver good performances, to tell a good story, to educate and entertain, to transport the viewer to a period worth knowing, to render good picture palace experience.This movie is based on history which is the Siege of Baler that happened near the end of the Philippine-Spanish War, wherein 57 soldiers hid inside a church against Filipino rebel troops. The major events and officials involved in the movie are real people, like Captain Enrique de Las Morenas, the commander of 57 man Spanish detachment of the Second Expeditionary Rifle Battalion. The siege of Baler is the backdrop of this movie, scarce the story is focused on the romance of half(a)-Spanish Half Filipino soldier who is Celso Resurreccion (Jericho Rosales), and a native of Baler, Quezon, who is Feliza Reyes (Anne Curtis).Watching the main characters on how they portray the characters are funny. Jericho doesnt look like Half Spanish. Also Anne wherein she is a native of Baler. She is not qualified to be one. Good thing she act fountainhead enough. Cinematography is not that good. Some are excellent but some are dull. The fight guess at the start looked like a montage. But it lacked spirit, doesnt affect much the viewer. The church looked genuinely fake. Even in the scene where Feliza is reading a love letter. It was dark, she was holding the lamp under the love letter, but how come she still be able to read it? All in all, the movie is good.Although I utter in the beginning its not good enough. My expectations arent met. For the record, I dont find studying the Siege of Baler. This served as a good source of my knowledge on our heri tage. Baler Un Libro de reaccion para espanoles Pasamos make horas dentro de clase. Vi un monton, descubierto nuevas ideas, pensamiento de llenar mis sentidos, sintio todas las lineas en la pelicula. Pero cuando estaba a punto de salir, parece que hay algo que falta. Es como si algo no esta llegando a mi estomago. Era como disuelto en la garganta antes de tiempo. La pelicula es aceptable. Lleno de buenas intenciones.Las intenciones de entregar buenos resultados, para contar una buena historia, educar y entretener, para transportar al espectador a un periodo vale la pena conocer, a hacer experiencia de cine bueno. Esta pelicula esta basada en la historia que es el Sitio de Baler que ocurrio cerca del final de la guerra filipino-espanol, en el que 57 soldados se escondio dentro de una iglesia en contra de las tropas rebeldes filipinos. Los eventos principales y funcionarios involucrados en la pelicula intelligence personas reales, como el capitan de Las Morenas Enrique, el comandant e del destacamento hombre de 57 espanoles del Batallon Expedicionario Rifle Segunda.El asedio de Baler es el telon de fondo de esta pelicula, pero la historia se centra en el romance de Half-espanolas mitad soldado filipino que es Celso Resurreccion (Jericho Rosales), y un nativo de Baler, Quezon, que es Feliza Reyes (Anne Curtis ). Viendo a los personajes principales en como retratan los personajes son divertidos. Jericho no se parece a la mitad espanoles. Tambien Anne donde ella es originaria de Baler. Ella no esta calificado para ser uno. Menos mal que actuar lo suficientemente bien. Cinematografia no es tan bueno. Algunos son excelentes, pero algunos son aburridos.La escena de la pelea al principio parecia un montaje. Pero carecia de espiritu, no afecta mucho al espectador. La iglesia se veia muy falso. Incluso en la escena en la que Feliza esta leyendo una carta de amor. Estaba oscuro, que sostenia la lampara bajo la carta de amor, pero ?como es que ella todavia ser capaz de le erlo? En conjunto, la pelicula es buena. Aunque he dicho al principio que no es lo suficientemente bueno. Mis expectativas no se cumplen. Para que conste, no me acuerdo el estudio del asedio de Baler. Esto sirvio como una buena fuente de mi conocimiento sobre nuestro patrimonio.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Familiar Writing Style

Speech without circumlocution sometimes can hurt others heart. tact n. The ability to do or say things without offending or upsetting other people Ex) SAT evaluates students tact to visualise a college level education. 6. Appeal to reasonity citation of information from people recognized for their special acquaintance of a subject for the purpose of strengthening a speaker or writers arguments.Causal relationship of, involving, or constituting a cause in a relationship cause and effect relationships Declamation a rhetorical exercise or set speech. Capricious given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behavior. Conciliatory intended or likely to placate or pacify. Contemplative expressing or involving prolonged thought. Glib (of words or the individual speaking them) fluent and voluble but insincere and shallow. Linguistic the scientific study of language and its structure, including the handicraft of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics.Pretentious attempting to impress by affecting greater importance, talent, culture, etc. , than is actually possessed. Strident loud and harsh grating. 7. L. The author put an anecdote about general misconceptions of familiar writing style on line 1-3. By criticizing the ideas which are opposite to his statement, his thesis can gain more power. This skill is the reduction to absurdity. II. The author use an antithesis on line 7-10. The author emphasized his idea through contrasting his idea with wrong conception.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Is Creativity Essential in Learning?

After the review of three elt designer approaches-the unsounded way, suggestopedia and total physical response, we have devised our own philosophy of teaching. We confide that creativity is essential to listening and if the students atomic number 18 making an effort on their part and discovering things for themselves the factor of self-reliance is evolved and since the students are active and autonomous in exploration so the learning would be more rough-and-ready. We believe that for speech learners, the language would present itself as a problem or a riddle to be solved.Learners are required to engage with the language and try to discover and explore it. We believe that peer cooperation is an important factor in learning. This enhances the level of reliance and patience among the students and students learn a lot from each other but matchless drawback to this is that they also learn each others mistakes. Furthermore, students are asked to review and overview what they have l earned in the class. It is by this activity of self chastisement through self-awareness that the students learn to deconstruct and thusly reconstruct.We believe that the intention of sound-color chart is really effective in language learning. This chart contains all the sounds of the target language in different colors. Students learn syllables, words and then sentences of the target language through these charts. We believe that the psychological barriers that students bring with them be desuggested. These can be desuggested twain by direct and indirect way. Once the student succeeds to clear his doubts and fear, his performance in learning impart become quite easy and effective. We believe that activating the learners imagination bequeath advocate learning.For slip, the learners can perform or take up a post or character in the target language that could place them inside the language they are learning. We also believe that when the students are exposed to the information as part of an environment, they grasp it more conveniently with less effort. The use of charts and posters related to the target language are one example of this. Moreover, the teachers authoritative usage is of prime importance. The main role of the teacher is to deconstruct the self-perceived barriers and to encourage and support the students so that they have complete confidence in themselves.This would improve and enhance their learning ability. Error toleration encourages the students to learn from their mistakes and improve upon. lyric poem is more effective when it is fun and here the main focus is on the spoken language. The use of commands in language learning makes it interesting. A complete lesson can be designed on the verbs by employing this technique. For example Slice some bread. Spread the butter to all corners of bread. Put piece of meat on one slice of bread. We believe that the use of The Arts incorporate fun in the class and the students can respect their le arning.The Arts enables suggestions to reach the subconscious of students. This method maintains a modest enthusiasm among the students. We believe that students should be promote to understand the target language before speaking. This method will provide the quick response from students. This will activate the learners imagination and help in learning. Motor activities involved plays an important role upon the cognitive learning of students . We believe that humor in the class make students stress-free and learning is more effective when students are in a relaxed state of mind.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Technology: Sociology and James Stacey Taylor

Kenneth Hunter Dr. Carpenter PL401 13 November 2012 James Stacey Taylor In measure of Big Brother This essay will argue the foretell on why we should learn to impediment worrying and love (some) political relation surveillance. James Stacey Taylors idea ab disclose government surveillance supervise for each one state will blow you away or open your eyes. I will excrete attention to some good points, bad points, and my beliefs and why I think this way about his view. By the end of this essay I hope to have answered your entire question on this topic of interest. Which is government surveillance could be a positive or negative problem for people?The first interrogative sentence to be address is how Dyson explained his pessimistic doubts that technological innovations frequently serve to increase social oppression and inequality. I will answer this in a two part answers, in which I will promulgate you how Dyson look at engine room was used and who benefited from the changes. D yson started addressing his pessimistic doubts with examples from history and his own life sentence. He talked about how technology started out in the fourteenth century with printing becoming the first technology transformation in Europe.With this spic-and-span invention, people all through Europe had the able to have books to read and educate themselves as well as their fellow countrymen by educating themselves. The technology of printing gave power to the reproduction of the Bible which light-emitting diode directly to the Protestant Reformation in Northern Europe. By using the technology the Protestant ethical code carried it with perpetual striving for social justice a vision that was seldom achieved. The next things Dyson begin pointing out was the sensibleness of technology which led the way for social justice during the next two centuries.Dyson talked about how public run such as clean water, sewage treatment, antibiotics and vaccines helped with bring the gap between l avish and poor closer. The campaign for this as he pointed out was these technologies were effective in protecting the rich from contagion and sickness if in any case available to poor. So, with being said in some countries where public health technologies are in compel by law there is no large gaps. He also talked about how technologies starting reservation synthetic materials to bridge the gaps by introduced fake furs, brilliant colors and silk.By doing this everyone was able to expend clothes of way and no was able to tell a person social class by the clothes they wore. So where does the social oppression exactly begin for people? Will I believe it start with new technology and gadgets introduce to social as new a break way to something done. What I think about by this statement for example the IPhone or any smartphone. While everyone has a cellphone to communicate with conversance and family a simple function so we think. Then technology comes along a change the mealy with apps, internet, and built-in cameras all in a phone that cost about $600 in the beginning.Only people that could afford this new slack technology were the people with money and then newer one hit the social introduction pushing the older version to be affordable for everyone. So, point is like a new toy we get at Christmas time that you didnt want your friends to touch because we have to keep it for self. Until we are tire and no longer wanting to play with it and the newest has wears off, we are more apt to allow others to enjoy it, as long as there is something better or newer to replace the old one. So, gaps are made with each turn of new technology pushing the way.In mop up, Dyson hope technology is used to equally by everyone rich and poor. I believe he pointed out everything that would equally shared by all people no matter their social status. Technology and Social Justice will always have some cause of gaps between people because money is driving force behind new t echnology. Dyson never pointed this out notwithstanding know these gaps were between rich and poor. At the end of his essay said there was no ill-treat to hope. I can see your point on this because Kurzweil took you on ride on many things.From a computer storage stand point look at what we start with 250mb and now we are at 3Tb for storing information. We are growing at a rate that could way out of control or in our control that is the question? We have to understand what direction these things are taking us because it will be a limit to our growth. Kurzweil know that with growth in time bad things would follow and would have to be ready to protect our self. While reading the case against perfection by Michael Sandel he pointed out a lot of thing we do as humans to modify ourselves by technology. Things like muscles in nhancement to improve our muscle loss from old age but when technology is used for performance enhancement, running, weight lifting, and understructure slugger are just to name a few. The able to change person genes before up to now being born is wrong on so many levels. The ethics surrounding this theory wouldnt allow humans to humans anymore. Everyone is born different for a reason and everyone is given their on largess at birth. By using this type of technology to change who we are would cause more funny farm then good. Like Sandel pointed with the cloned sheep Dolly which died prematurely with abnormalities was unsafe.The sad truth behind all this type of technology is no matter how we try to change or improve it the cycle death in the end. Sandel point I believe is we have a right to choose our own path in life and should only everything to change our unique able to be different. In Preventing a Brave New humanity (pp. 317-329), Leon Kass concludes that reproductive and therapeutic cloning of human embryos is unethical. What are the exact steps in Kasss argument for this conclusion? What is your assessment of the strengths and weakne sses of this argument?

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi/Kashmiri , pronounced d a r? la? l ? ne ru? 14 November 188927 May 19644) was an Indian assertsman who was the commencement ceremony (and to examine the dourest- fate) gush look of India, from 1947 until 1964. One of the dealering figures in the Indian independence movement, Nehru was elected by the copulation ships company to hire office as freelance Indias early quality Minister, and re-elected when the relation back Party win Indias first everyday choice in 1952.As one of the fo unders of the Non-aligned Movement, he was in addition an important figure in the world(prenominal) authorities of the post-war era. He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi honorific intend savant or teacher) and, specific follower in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The give-and-take of a cockeyed Indian barrister and politician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left wing of the c oition Party when all the same sensibly young.Rising to blend Congress President, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a charismatic and radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. In the bulky struggle for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was eventually recognise as Gandhis goernmental heir. Through go forth his livelihood, Nehru was alike an advocate for Fabian lovingism and the macrocosm sector as the agency by which long-standing challenges of economic maturement could be treated by short(p)er nations. Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family.The Nehru family Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) argon Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira Gandhi, and Ranjit Pandit Seated Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927). Nehru was educated in India and Britain. In Engl and, he be the free-lance boys school, Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. Jawaharlal Nehru at Harrow, where he was as well as kn receive as Joe Nehru. During his beat in Britain, Nehru was also known as Joe Nehru. 5678910 On 8 February, 1916, Nehru married seventeen socio-economic class grey Kamala Kaul. In the irst year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini. edit Life and career Nehru raised the flag of fissiparous India in natural Delhi on 15 August 1947, the day India gained Independence.Nehrus appreciation of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, coup lead with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, are recognise to bear guided him in formulating collective policies that influence India to this day. They also reflect the tenderist origins of his worldview. His lady friend, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as Prime Ministers of India. edit Successor to Gandhi On 15 J anuary 1941 Gandhi tell, Some say Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It testament read oft more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the measure we became co- rub downers and to that degree I bear said for close to eld and say so now that non Rajaji tho Jawaharlal will be my successor. 11 edit Indias first Prime Minister adolescent Murti Bhavan, Nehrus residence as Prime Minister, now a m callum in his memory. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for impart of power.Once elected, Nehru headed an interim g everywherenment, which was mutilateed by prohibitedbreaks of communal force out and form _or_ system of goernment-making dis de nameine, and the op locating of the Moslem League conduct by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a sepa govern Muslim submit of Pakistan. afterwards fai take bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the zone of India, accordin g to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled A Tryst With Destiny Long eld ago we do a allotment with destiny, and now the time comes hen we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in liberal measure, notwithstanding very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A effect comes, which comes ex doingly rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the pertly, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is commensurate that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her peck and to the pipe down bigger cause of humanity. 12 However, this period was marked with intense communal violence.This violence swept crossways the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and anformer(a)(prenominal) part of India. Nehru conducted j oint tourscitation needed with Pakistani leading to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Nehru would work with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Muslims to remain in India. The violence of the time deeply touch on Nehru, who called for a ceasefirecitation needed and UN intervention to stop the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in backup the appropriation of Hyderabad State.In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his individualised affairs. to a lower place his leadership, the Congress won an overwhelming major(ip)ity in the elections of 1952. Indira moved into Nehrus official residence to go by to him and became his uninterrupted comrade in his travels across India and the world. Indira would virtually become Nehrus chief of staff. Nehrus study in Teen Murti Bhavan. edit scotch policies Nehru presided o ver the introduction of a modified, Indian version of introduce planning and control over the economy.Creating the plan counsel of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the governments investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing commerce and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a abstruse economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electrimetropolis and wakeless industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistri exception and launched programmes to work irrigation canals, dams and crack the use of fertilizers to augment untaught roduction. He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at bed cover diverse cottage industries and change magnitude efficiency into agrestic India. While encouraging the device of medium-large dams (which Nehru called the new temples of India), irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity, Ne hru also launched Indias programme to harness nuclear energy. For most of Nehrus term as heyday minister of religion, India would track to face serious food shortages despite progress and increases in agricultural production.Nehrus industrial policies, summarised in the Industrial indemnity Resolution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,13 yet secern planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, called Hindu rate of growth at 2. 5% per annum, chronic unemployment amidst widespread poverty continue to plague the population. edit Education and social crystallise Jawaharlal Nehru was a ireate advocate of training for Indias children and youth, believing it essential for Indias future progress.His government oversaw the physical composition of legion(predicate) institutions of higher(prenominal) learning, including the All India show of checkup Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a perpetration in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of Indias children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the macrocosm of piling crossroads enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free draw and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, peculiarly in the rural areas. to a lower place Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste contrariety and increase the sub judice rights and social freedoms of women141516 17 A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to do away with the social inequalities and disadvantages face by peoples of the scheduled cas tes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. edit bailiwick certification and external constitution See also Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led pertly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of freedom from British rule. Both the United States and the Soviet league competed to cave in India an ally throughout the Cold War. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacificism and a unfaltering paladin of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the gibe axis vertebras of nations led by the U. S. and the U. S.S. R. Recognising the Peoples Republic of china soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc go on relations with the Republic of China), Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and ref apply to brand the C hinese as the aggressors in their dispute with Korea. 18 He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intercessor to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. but, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in accordance with the UN reply and as Nehru grew progressively wary of the U. N. , he declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the trance of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah, whom he had antecedently supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962.Jawaharlal Nehru (right) duologue to Pakistan patriarchal minister Muhammad Ali Bogra (left) during his 1953 visit to Karachi. Nehru was hailed b y many for working to defuse global tensions and the little terror of nuclear weapons. 19 He commissioned the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned ceaselessly for the abolition of what he called these rattling(a) engines of destruction. He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own. 20 In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, french and Israelis. distrust and distrust cooled relations between India and the U. S. , which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. evaluate the arbitration of the UK and institution Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to nail down long-standing disputes nigh sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. edit Final years Nehru with Ashoke Kumar Sen , S.Radhakrishnan and Bidhan Chandra RoyNehru had led the Congress to a major advantage in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotismcitation needed, although really Nehru had disapproved of her election, part because he considered it smacked of dynastism he said, indeed it was wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet. 21 Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy most notably, she used his oft-stated in the flesh(predicate) deference to the Congress works commissioning to push through the dismissal of the Communist Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. 21 Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was psychic trauma by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake out an personal identity independent of her father. 4Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian border treaty, in later years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertiveness over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political asylum to the fourteenth Dalai Lama. after years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in 1961, and then he annexed it to India. It change magnitude his normality, but he was criticized the use of military force. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a squandered majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Public viewing of Nehrus body, which lies in state, in 1964 the gun stance used for his state funeral was later used for the state funeral of Mother TeresaSince 1959, and this accelerated in 1961, Nehru adopted the send on Policy of mise en scene up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in dominion not previously controlled by India. 22 China attacked some of these outposts, and thus the Sino-Indian War began, which India technically lost, but China gained no land as it withdrew to pre-war lines. The war exposed the weaknesses of Indias military, and Nehru was wide criticised for his governments insufficient attention to defense reaction. In response, Nehru despoiled the defence minister Krishna Menon and sought U. S. military aid, but Nehrus health began declining steadily, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963.Some historians associate this spectacular decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a lese majesty of trust. 23 Upon his recall from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the be propagation hours of 27 May 1964. Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. edit legacy Nehrus statue in Aldwych, London.As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru contend a major determination in shaping ripe Indias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the development of world- path educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,24 Indian Institutes of Technology,25 and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru was a great man Neh ru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I dont think others qualification take over succeeded in doing. Sir Isaiah Berlin26 In addition, Nehrus stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also tool policies which accented grossness among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British insularism from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as affiliate against a park adversary.While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the home(a) confine Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organised the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, Integrate or perish. 27 edit memorial Nehru pass out sweets to children in Nongp oh Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp.In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely value across the world for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday, 14 November, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas (Childrens Day) in identification of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru ashes a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his memory.Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehrus ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress Partys manifesto and core political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was slavish in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress Party and the national government. Many documentaries well-nigh Nehrus life have been produced. He h as also been portrayed in fictionalised films.The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him trine times in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehrus The uncovering of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled The Last Days of the Raj. 28 In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by benjamin Gilani. Nehrus personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today digression from bestow his shape to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour due to his preference for that style.Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehrus memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and occupation load. Nehrus residence in Delhi is pres erved as the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to recall Nehru and his familys legacy. edit literature Nehru was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of humankind History, and his autobiography, Towards Freedom. edit Awards In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour. 29 edit Criticism D. D. Kosambi, a well-known Marxist historian, criticized Nehru in his member for the middle class class exploitation of Nehrus socialist ideology. 30Jaswant Singh, a former leader of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), viewed Nehru, not Mohammad Ali Jinnah, as do the partition of India, mostly referring to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in 1947, which Jinnah opposed in prefer of a more decentralised India. The split between the ii was among the causes of partition. It is believed that personal animosity bet ween the two leaders led to the partition of India. 3132 Singh was later expelled from the BJP for having favourable views on Jinnah. Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru (Hindi/Kashmiri , pronounced d a r? la? l ? ne ru? 14 November 188927 May 19644) was an Indian statesman who was the first (and to date the longest-serving) prime minister of India, from 1947 until 1964. One of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement, Nehru was elected by the Congress Party to assume office as independent Indias first Prime Minister, and re-elected when the Congress Party won Indias first general election in 1952.As one of the founders of the Non-aligned Movement, he was also an important figure in the international politics of the post-war era. He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi honorific meaning scholar or teacher) and, specifically in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The son of a wealthy Indian barrister and polit ician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left wing of the Congress Party when still fairly young.Rising to become Congress President, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a charismatic and radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. In the long struggle for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was eventually recognized as Gandhis political heir. Throughout his life, Nehru was also an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of economic development could be addressed by poorer nations. Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family.The Nehru family Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) are Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira Gandhi, and Ranjit Pandit Seated Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927). Nehru was educated in In dia and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boys school, Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. Jawaharlal Nehru at Harrow, where he was also known as Joe Nehru. During his time in Britain, Nehru was also known as Joe Nehru. 5678910 On 8 February, 1916, Nehru married seventeen year old Kamala Kaul. In the irst year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini. edit Life and career Nehru raised the flag of independent India in New Delhi on 15 August 1947, the day India gained Independence.Nehrus appreciation of the virtues of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, coupled with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, are recognised to have guided him in formulating socialist policies that influence India to this day. They also reflect the socialist origins of his worldview. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as Prime Ministers of India. edit Successor to Gandhi On 15 January 1941 Gandhi said, Some say Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It will require much more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor. 11 edit Indias first Prime Minister Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehrus residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for transfer of power.Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, which was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India, according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his in augural address titled A Tryst With Destiny Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes hen we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. 12 However, this period was marked with intense communal violence.This violence swept across the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and other parts of India. Nehru conducted joint tourscitation needed with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Nehru would work with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Mu slims to remain in India. The violence of the time deeply affected Nehru, who called for a ceasefirecitation needed and UN intervention to stop the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in supporting the annexation of Hyderabad State.In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs. Under his leadership, the Congress won an overwhelming majority in the elections of 1952. Indira moved into Nehrus official residence to attend to him and became his constant companion in his travels across India and the world. Indira would virtually become Nehrus chief of staff. Nehrus study in Teen Murti Bhavan. edit Economic policies Nehru presided over the introduction of a modified, Indian version of state planning and control over the economy.Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the governments investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural roduction. He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India. While encouraging the construction of large dams (which Nehru called the new temples of India), irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched Indias programme to harness nuclear energy. For most of Nehrus term as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages despite progress and increases in agricultural production.Nehrus industrial policies, summarised in the Indu strial Policy Resolution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,13 yet state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, called Hindu rate of growth at 2. 5% per annum, chronic unemployment amidst widespread poverty continued to plague the population. edit Education and social reform Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for Indias children and youth, believing it essential for Indias future progress.His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of Indias children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programm es and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women141516 17 A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. edit National security and foreign policy See also Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of freedom from British rule. Both the United S tates and the Soviet Union competed to make India an ally throughout the Cold War. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U. S. and the U. S.S. R. Recognising the Peoples Republic of China soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China), Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea. 18 He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. but, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in accordance with the UN resolution and as Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U. N. , he declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah, whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962.Jawaharlal Nehru (right) talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra (left) during his 1953 visit to Karachi. Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons. 19 He commissioned the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned ceaselessly for the abolition of what he called these frightful engines of destruction. He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be u naffordable for developing countries such as his own. 20 In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled relations between India and the U. S. , which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. edit Final years Nehru with Ashoke Kumar Sen, S.Radhakrishnan and Bidhan Chandra RoyNehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotismcitation needed, although actually Nehru had disapp roved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of dynastism he said, indeed it was wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet. 21 Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy most notably, she used his oft-stated personal deference to the Congress Working Committee to push through the dismissal of the Communist Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. 21 Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was hurt by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake out an identity independent of her father. 4Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian border treaty, in later years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertiveness over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political asylum to the 14th Dalai Lam a. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in 1961, and then he annexed it to India. It increased his popularity, but he was criticized the use of military force. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Public viewing of Nehrus body, which lies in state, in 1964 the gun carriage used for his state funeral was later used for the state funeral of Mother TeresaSince 1959, and this accelerated in 1961, Nehru adopted the Forward Policy of setting up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India. 22 China attacked some of these outposts, and thus the Sino-Indian War began, which India technically lost, but China gained no territory as it withdrew to pre-war lines. The war exposed the weaknesses of Indias military, and Nehru was widely criticised for his governments insufficient attention to defence. In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister Krishna Menon and sought U. S. military aid, but Nehrus health began declining steadily, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963.Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. 23 Upon his return from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the early hours of 27 May 1964. Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. edit Legacy Nehrus statue in Aldwych, London.As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern Ind ias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,24 Indian Institutes of Technology,25 and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru was a great man Nehru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I dont think others might have succeeded in doing. Sir Isaiah Berlin26 In addition, Nehrus stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary.While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, Integrate or perish. 27 edit Commemoration Nehru hands out sweets to children in Nongpoh Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp.In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely admired across the world for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday, 14 November, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas (Childrens Day) in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru remains a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his m emory.Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehrus ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress Partys manifesto and core political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was instrumental in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress Party and the national government. Many documentaries about Nehrus life have been produced. He has also been portrayed in fictionalised films.The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him three times in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehrus The Discovery of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled The Last Days of the Raj. 28 In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani. Nehrus personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today aside from lending his name to a kin d of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour due to his preference for that style.Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehrus memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and traffic load. Nehrus residence in Delhi is preserved as the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to commemorate Nehru and his familys legacy. edit Writings Nehru was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Towards Freedom. edit Awards In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour. 29 edit Criticism D. D. Kosambi, a well-known Marxist historian, criticized Nehru in his article for the bourgeoisie class exploit ation of Nehrus socialist ideology. 30Jaswant Singh, a former leader of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), viewed Nehru, not Mohammad Ali Jinnah, as causing the partition of India, mostly referring to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in 1947, which Jinnah opposed in favour of a more decentralised India. The split between the two was among the causes of partition. It is believed that personal animosity between the two leaders led to the partition of India. 3132 Singh was later expelled from the BJP for having favourable views on Jinnah. Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal Nehru (Hindi/Kashmiri , pronounced d a r? la? l ? ne ru? 14 November 188927 May 19644) was an Indian statesman who was the first (and to date the longest-serving) prime minister of India, from 1947 until 1964. One of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement, Nehru was elected by the Congress Party to assume office as independent Indias first Prime Minister, and re-elected when the Congres s Party won Indias first general election in 1952.As one of the founders of the Non-aligned Movement, he was also an important figure in the international politics of the post-war era. He is frequently referred to as Pandit Nehru (pandit being a Sanskrit and Hindi honorific meaning scholar or teacher) and, specifically in India, as Panditji (with -ji being a honorific suffix). The son of a wealthy Indian barrister and politician, Motilal Nehru, Nehru became a leader of the left wing of the Congress Party when still fairly young.Rising to become Congress President, under the mentorship of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru was a charismatic and radical leader, advocating complete independence from the British Empire. In the long struggle for Indian independence, in which he was a key player, Nehru was eventually recognized as Gandhis political heir. Throughout his life, Nehru was also an advocate for Fabian socialism and the public sector as the means by which long-standing challenges of economic development could be addressed by poorer nations. Jawaharlal Nehru was born to Motilal Nehru (18611931) and Swaroop Rani (18631954) in a Kashmiri Pandit family.The Nehru family Motilal Nehru is seated in the center, and standing (L to R) are Jawaharlal Nehru, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Krishna Hutheesing, Indira Gandhi, and Ranjit Pandit Seated Swaroop Rani, Motilal Nehru and Kamala Nehru (circa 1927). Nehru was educated in India and Britain. In England, he attended the independent boys school, Harrow and Trinity College, Cambridge. Jawaharlal Nehru at Harrow, where he was also known as Joe Nehru. During his time in Britain, Nehru was also known as Joe Nehru. 5678910 On 8 February, 1916, Nehru married seventeen year old Kamala Kaul. In the irst year of the marriage, Kamala gave birth to their only child, Indira Priyadarshini. edit Life and career Nehru raised the flag of independent India in New Delhi on 15 August 1947, the day India gained Independence.Nehrus appreciation of the virtu es of parliamentary democracy, secularism and liberalism, coupled with his concerns for the poor and underprivileged, are recognised to have guided him in formulating socialist policies that influence India to this day. They also reflect the socialist origins of his worldview. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, also served as Prime Ministers of India. edit Successor to Gandhi On 15 January 1941 Gandhi said, Some say Pandit Nehru and I were estranged. It will require much more than difference of opinion to estrange us. We had differences from the time we became co-workers and yet I have said for some years and say so now that not Rajaji but Jawaharlal will be my successor. 11 edit Indias first Prime Minister Teen Murti Bhavan, Nehrus residence as Prime Minister, now a museum in his memory. Nehru and his colleagues had been released as the British Cabinet Mission arrived to propose plans for transfer of power.Once elected, Nehru headed an interim government, whic h was impaired by outbreaks of communal violence and political disorder, and the opposition of the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who were demanding a separate Muslim state of Pakistan. After failed bids to form coalitions, Nehru reluctantly supported the partition of India, according to a plan released by the British on 3 June 1947. He took office as the Prime Minister of India on 15 August, and delivered his inaugural address titled A Tryst With Destiny Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes hen we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity. 12 However, this period was marked with intense communal violence.This violence swept across the Punjab region, Delhi, Bengal and other parts of India. Nehru conducted joint tourscitation needed with Pakistani leaders to encourage peace and calm angry and disillusioned refugees. Nehru would work with Maulana Azad and other Muslim leaders to safeguard and encourage Muslims to remain in India. The violence of the time deeply affected Nehru, who called for a ceasefirecitation needed and UN intervention to stop the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fearing communal reprisals, Nehru also hesitated in supporting the annexation of Hyderabad State.In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs. Under his leadership, the Congress won an overwhelming majority in the elections of 1952. Indira moved into Nehrus official residence to attend to him and became his constant companion in his travels across India and the world. Indira would virtually become Nehrus chief of staff. Nehrus study in Teen Murti Bhavan. edit Economic policies Nehru presided over the introduction of a modified, Indian version of state planning and control over the economy.Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the governments investments in industries and agriculture. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural roduction. He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India. While encouraging the construction of large dams (which Nehru called the new temples of India), irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity, Nehru also launched Indias programme to harness nuclear energy. For most of Nehrus term as prime minister, India would continue to face serious food shortages despite progress and increases in agricultural production.Nehrus industrial policies, summarised in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries,13 yet state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, called Hindu rate of growth at 2. 5% per annum, chronic unemployment amidst widespread poverty continued to plague the population. edit Education and social reform Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for Indias children and youth, believing it essential for Indias future progress.H is government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of Indias children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrollment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition.Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women141516 17 A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the s ocial inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government. edit National security and foreign policy See also Role of India in Non-Aligned Movement Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of freedom from British rule. Both the United States and the Soviet Union competed to make India an ally throughout the Cold War. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U. S. and the U. S.S. R. Recognising the Peoples Republic of China soon after its founding (while most of the Western bloc continued relations with the Republic of China), Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nat ions and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea. 18 He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with China in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. Meanwhile, Nehru had promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. but, as Pakistan failed to pull back troops in accordance with the UN resolution and as Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U. N. , he declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah, whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him. His policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China also came unraveled when border disputes led to the Sino-Indian war in 1962.Jawaharlal Nehru (right) talks to Pakistan prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra (left) during his 1953 visit to Karachi. Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons. 19 He commissioned the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned ceaselessly for the abolition of what he called these frightful engines of destruction. He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own. 20 In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled relations between India and the U. S. , which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region. edit Final years Nehru with Ashoke Kumar Sen, S.Ra dhakrishnan and Bidhan Chandra RoyNehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism. Disillusioned by intra-party corruption and bickering, Nehru contemplated resigning but continued to serve. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotismcitation needed, although actually Nehru had disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of dynastism he said, indeed it was wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing, and refused her a position in his cabinet. 21 Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy most notably, she used his oft-stated personal deference to the Congress Working Committee to push through the dismissal of the Communist Party of India government in the state of Kerala, over his own objections. 21 Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary traditio n, and was hurt by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake out an identity independent of her father. 4Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian border treaty, in later years, Nehrus foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese assertiveness over border disputes and Nehrus decision to grant political asylum to the 14th Dalai Lama. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to invade Goa in 1961, and then he annexed it to India. It increased his popularity, but he was criticized the use of military force. In the 1962 elections, Nehru led the Congress to victory yet with a diminished majority.Opposition parties ranging from the right-wing Bharatiya Jana Sangh and Swatantra Party, socialists and the Communist Party of India performed well. Public viewing of Nehrus body, which lies in state, in 1964 the gun carriage used for his state funeral was later used for the state funeral of Mother TeresaSince 1959, and this accelerated in 1961, Nehru adopted the Forward Policy of setting up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India. 22 China attacked some of these outposts, and thus the Sino-Indian War began, which India technically lost, but China gained no territory as it withdrew to pre-war lines. The war exposed the weaknesses of Indias military, and Nehru was widely criticised for his governments insufficient attention to defence. In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister Krishna Menon and sought U. S. military aid, but Nehrus health began declining steadily, and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through 1963.Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. 23 Upon his return from Kashmir in May 1964, Nehru suffered a stroke and later a heart attack. He died in the early hours of 27 May 1964. Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivana on the banks of the Yamuna River, witnessed by hundreds of thousands of mourners who had flocked into the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds. edit Legacy Nehrus statue in Aldwych, London.As Indias first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern Indias government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehrus education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences,24 Indian Institutes of Technology,25 and the Indian Institutes of Management. Nehru was a great man Nehru gave to Indians an image of themselves that I dont think others might have succeeded in doing. Sir Isaiah Berlin26 In addition, Nehrus stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities. This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary.While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, Integrate or perish. 27 edit Commemoration Nehru hands out sweets to children in Nongpoh Jawaharlal Nehru on a 1989 USSR commemorative stamp.In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India an d was widely admired across the world for his idealism and statesmanship. His birthday, 14 November, is celebrated in India as Baal Divas (Childrens Day) in recognition of his lifelong passion and work for the welfare, education and development of children and young people. Children across India remember him as Chacha Nehru (Uncle Nehru). Nehru remains a popular symbol of the Congress Party which frequently celebrates his memory.Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap, and his mannerisms. Nehrus ideals and policies continue to shape the Congress Partys manifesto and core political philosophy. An emotional attachment to his legacy was instrumental in the rise of his daughter Indira to leadership of the Congress Party and the national government. Many documentaries about Nehrus life have been produced. He has also been portrayed in fictionalised films.The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth, who played him three t imes in Richard Attenboroughs 1982 film Gandhi, Shyam Benegals 1988 television series Bharat Ek Khoj, based on Nehrus The Discovery of India, and in a 2007 TV film entitled The Last Days of the Raj. 28 In Ketan Mehtas film Sardar, Nehru was portrayed by Benjamin Gilani. Nehrus personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today aside from lending his name to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour due to his preference for that style.Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehrus memory. The Jawaharlal Nehru University in Delhi is among the most prestigious universities in India. The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and traffic load. Nehrus residence in Delhi is preserved as the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library. The Nehru family homes at Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan are also preserved to commemorate Neh ru and his familys legacy. edit Writings Nehru was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Towards Freedom. edit Awards In 1955 Nehru was awarded with Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian honour. 29 edit Criticism D. D. Kosambi, a well-known Marxist historian, criticized Nehru in his article for the bourgeoisie class exploitation of Nehrus socialist ideology. 30Jaswant Singh, a former leader of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), viewed Nehru, not Mohammad Ali Jinnah, as causing the partition of India, mostly referring to his highly centralised policies for an independent India in 1947, which Jinnah opposed in favour of a more decentralised India. The split between the two was among the causes of partition. It is believed that personal animosity between the two leaders led to the partition of India. 3132 Singh was later expelled from the BJP for having favourable views on Jinnah.