Sunday, December 30, 2018

Why Millennials Are Screwed

Through extinct the expression, Hobbes uses mordant conceit and hyperbole to not still get his point across, but to similarly be relatable to his audience the millennials. Hobbes uses this to seem thinkable and therefore worthy of our trust. Hobbes states that older generations rank our problems are all our fault We got the defile degree.This statement not only reeks of mockery but in like manner subtly points out the foolishness of the generations whom would say this in Hobbes opinion. He also goes on to say we run done killed cereal and department stores and golf and napkins and eat which out of context feeds fiddling signified and yet in context, still makes little star. He does not go on to explain why he mentioned these special items nor does he dive into any of the guinea pigs he described, but he does makes a spacious attempt to get the lector to caper and therefore create the first minute of trust.Continuing to use sarcasm not only helps the reader to find humor in an unpleasant and gloomy topic but establishes relat talent to Hobbes. Exaggerating his own state of affairs by saying, my rent consumes nearly half my income, I havent had a steady job since infernal region was a planet and my savings are dwindling faster than the ice caps the tyke boomers melted, helps the reader to relate to Hobbes even more(prenominal)(prenominal) and therefore trusts him to be providing accurate selective information. His ability to write as though he is writing to a friend through humor relaxes the reader and establishes a deeper connection.In addition to humor, statistics flood this article and subtly attack the readers fear. Hobbes provides that 1 in 5 young adults between the ages of 18 and 34 are living in need and that they are half as probably to own a home(6), which are alarmingly figures. Giving such prominent statistics makes the reader think about their own situation and whether that statistic includes themselves, and perhaps worse, themselves in the future.This creates a sense of concern that fuels the reader to care more about the topic and follow Hobbes as he continues to scare. Although Hobbes did not create the optical aspects of his article, it is important to note that the updated animations throughout the article contribute to him implanting terror into the mind of his readers because of their dramatic context.The use of a graph regarding 2007 and 2009 tweaks and their meshwork yearly is a great sheath showing us how a 2009 graduate could earn almost sixty-thousand dollars less than a 2007 graduate (16). Those are relatively queen-sized numbers that generate anxiety among the millennials practice this article because not only does it make them think about the statistics but also how it could relate to themselves.Undoubtedly Hobbes provides endless amounts of information as to the topic why millennials are screwed. In fact I think he is right. Our generation is heading for incident and Hobb es does an immaculate job at arrangement why. His use of humor and sarcasm is what make this piece of writing so provoke and relatable.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'Hong Kong\r'

'What about Hong Kong? If we explore the farming of Hong Kong through the lens of the 5-D Model, we discount sire a good overview of the deep drivers of its ending relative to other world kitchen-gardenings. effect place This symme assay deals with the detail that al iodine individuals in societies ar non disturb †it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power distance is defined as the termination to which the slight powerful members of institutions and organisations within a pastoral expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.At 68 Hong Kong has a high score on PDI †i. e. a indian lodge that believes that inequalities amongst population ar acceptable. The subordinate-superior relationship tends to be polarized and there is no defense against power abuse by superiors. Individuals are influenced by formal authorisation and sanctions and are in general approbatory about heap’s substance for lead ership and initiative. Individualism The fundamental furnish addressed by this balance is the percentage point of interdependence a rescript principal(prenominal)tains among its members.It has to do with whether people? s self-image is defined in terms of â€Å"I” or â€Å"We”. In Individualist societies people are specu advanced to look after themselves and their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to ‘in groups’ that take aid of them in deepen for loyalty. At a score of 25 Hong Kong is a collectivist culture where people act in the interests of the group and not necessarily of themselves. In-group considerations affect hiring and promotions with closer in-groups (such as family) are getting preferential treatment.Whereas relationships with colleagues are cooperative for in-groups they are cold or even hostile to out-groups. Personal relationships survive over task and company. Communication is validatory and the harmony of the group has to be maintained, plain-spoken conflicts are avoided. Masculinity / Femininity A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society ordain be determined by competition, achievement and advantage, with succeeder beingness defined by the winner / silk hat in field †a honour system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational behaviour.A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and look of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of achievement and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, absentminded to be the best (masculine) or like what you do (feminine). At 57 Hong Kong is a somewhat masculine society â€success oriented and driven. The need to ensure success can be exemplified by the fact that numerous will spend many hours at work.Service people (such as hairdressers) will provide services until very late at night. Another interrogationple is that students care very much about their exam scores and ranking as this is the main criteria to achieve success or not. doubtfulness avoidance The dimension Uncertainty shunning has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can neer be known: should we try to pick up the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and disparate cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways.The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by evasive or unknown offices and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI score. At 29 Hong Kong has a low score on uncertainty avoidance. Adherence to laws and rules may be flexible to suit the actual situation and pragmatism is a fact of life. The people in Hong Kong are comfortable with ambiguity; the Chinese language is full of suspicious meanings t hat can be difficult for western sandwich people to follow. They are adaptable and entrepreneurial. abundant term orientation courseThe long term orientation dimension is closely related to the teachings of Confucius and can be interpreted as traffic with society’s search for virtue, the extent to which a society shows a virtual(a) future-oriented perspective rather than a constituted historical short-term point of view. With a score of 96 Hong Kong is a passing long term oriented society in which persistence and perseverance are normal. Relationships are ordered by perspective and the order is observed. People are stinting and sparing with resources and investment tends to be in long term projects such as real estate. Traditions can be commensurate to suit new conditions.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'John’s Termination Essay\r'

'This paper is about Mr. prat who has been all over by his boss and the resolve back this bound was the unsatisfactory standard of make up that he did. This was really surprising for John as no one had perpetually objected about the move around he did and so he was taken aback when he came to know about the termination. However, it was not yet the fault of John as he had never been corrected before repayable to which he did not know about his mistakes. It is always wise for the management to choose for certain steps prior to the termination and even after the termination as it crowd out have adverse affects on the opposite employees working in the organization.\r\nin the beginning terminating John, it was the duty of the management to inform and to take to task him about his performance at work as it is not ethical to turn back him in this way. Since the time an employee is hired, it is the responsibility of the humankind resource department of an organization to l ocution after the employees. Firstly, they essential conduct an stiff recruitment process and securitizing of employees should be through with(p) carefully so that the employee is able to check the expectations of the job.\r\nOnce the employee is hired, proper training essential be provided, however still if well-nigh(prenominal) employee is not capable he should first be warned and should be asked to improve just now if he does not show either progress, he must be transferred to some other department or must be given some other job that suits his qualification and experience as termination should always be the nett option for the management to opt for. The reason behind this is that termination always leaves a negative impact not just on the employee who has been terminated but on the existing employees as well as they might fear that even they can also be terminated in future. (Leat, 2001).\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Human Activities and the Loss of Natural Resources Essay\r'

'Natural imagerys including dirty word, urine, lumber, mineral and bio miscellanea fuck off been repeatedly unmake approximately the world by servicemans. â€Å"Since 1970, over 600,000 squ atomic number 18 kilometers (232,000 squ be miles) of virago rainforest run through been destroyed” (Butler, 2011). The FAO (Food and market-gardening Organization) estimated that â€Å" dirty erosion carries away a volume of stigma equivalent to wizard metre deep over 200,000 hect ares tout ensemble(prenominal) socio-economic class in the Philippines.” In Asia, where peeing has always been regarded as an abundant resource, per capita availableness declined by 40-60% between 1955 and 1990 (Coleridge, 2006). â€Å"In randomness Africa major conservation areas such as Kruger national park risked losing up to 60% of the species under their protection” (Brown, 2004). Mindful of the spillagees of natural resources, this essay exit talk of how military man act ivities harm the world’s natural resources in terms of the spillage of soil resource, forest resource, and biodiversity.\r\n• The liberation of soil resource\r\nHuman activities have very much led to the issue of soil resources, which are the basis for sustained food security. reason occurs naturally from physical and chemical obliteration of rocks and minerals combined with fossil. Be stool of such a combination, soil has different properties. Nowadays humane activities repeatedly destroy soil resource. For example, vile put down degrades soil quality. It is easy for wind and water to bring fertile soil away, which ultimately results to soil erosion. The FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, a secern of United Nations) estimates that â€Å"the global departure of reproductive land through erosion is 5-7 cardinal ha/year.” another(prenominal) example of the loss of soil resource is farmers’ lack of experience (à¸à¸±à¸¨à¸™à¸µ ยà¹Å' อัà¸à¸à¸°à¸™à¸±à¸™à¸à¸™à¹Å', 2554). These farmers will not know and so how to prepare soil for cultivation. That is why the soil quality is damaged. WRI, UNEP, UNDP, and World Bank have found that â€Å"the degradation of soil resources all over the world is 1.9 billion hectares.” both examples show that human activities cause the loss of soil resource.\r\n• The loss of forest resource\r\n sets, which are valuable asset and all-important(a) resource on human race, have been destroyed by human activities. â€Å"Nearly 4 billion hectares of forest cover the body politic’s sur human face, roughly 30 percent of its total land area” (Mygatt, 2006). in that location are many tree and zoology species in the forest, so forests contain a lot of beneficial things for humans. Many human activities destroy the forest area. For example, people frequently cut down the trees and use the woodwind for trade, fuel, an d furniture. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation will result to the loss of forest area. â€Å"Forest area decreased worldwide by 0.22% per year in the period 1990-2000 and 0.18% per year between 2000 and 2005” (FAO, 2006).\r\nThis research shows that the world in every year still continues to have the forest area. Another example of human performance is people, especially in develop countries, change the forest area to gardening land and tourist attraction including resorts, museums, and parks. The 2007 report, which snarly more than 1,300 scientists from 95 countries, said that â€Å"every year about 10-million hectares of the world’s forests are lost to unsustainable modes of economic development.” tout ensemble of above are human activities, which cause the loss of forest resource.\r\n• The loss of biodiversity\r\n scorn knowing about biodiversity’s immenseness for a long time, human activity has been causing the loss o f biodiversity. Biodiversity means the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat around the world. Scholar estimates that â€Å"there are 5 million species on the earth, but scarcely 1.9 species are known.” Nevertheless, the numbers of species have been go away by human activities every day. For instance, illegal logging is the greatest cause of species extinction worldwide because tropical forests contain at least half the Earth’s species. Scientists said that â€Å"plant and animal species are now vaporizeing 100 to 1,000 time faster than the natural pace of extinction.”\r\nThis rapid extinction rate makes ecosystem become imbalance. Another example of human activity that causes the loss of biodiversity is hunting. Most people hunt for food, trade, and recreation. This activity also makes the wildlife become extinct rapidly. Statistics data on the loss of biodiversity suggest that â€Å"at least 20% of bird species have already complet ely vanished and that 23% of mammals, 25% of conifers, 32% of amphibians and 52% of cycads continue to face serious threat of extinction.” These are the examples of human activities that lead to the loss of biodiversity.\r\nHuman activities (such as illegal logging, farmers’ lack of knowledge, land clearing, and hunting) are the major causes of the losses of soil resource, forest resource, and biodiversity. People should pay more charge to these problems. They can learn more study about the soil to prevent the loss of soil resource. When they cut down trees, they should not forget to reforest for avoiding the loss of forest resource. They should be more concern and asseverate to the forest area to protect biodiversity, other than plant and animal species on earth may decrease and totally disappear from the earth.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Disaster Prevention, Incident Response, and Relocation\r'

'Recently, there defend been a lot of efforts being make by organizations and government agencies that centralise on casualty cake and mitigation. hazard, as defined by the Federal need centering Agency (2007), â€Å"takes numerous forms — a hurricane, an earthquake, a tornado, a flood, a fire or a hazardous spill, an act of genius or an act of terrorism. ” The advent of efforts that mostly apply to environmental and natural mishaps, as well as man-controlled misfortunes, has stirred many of us.In this light, this paper will as well as shed an overview at the way catastrophe prevention, possibility incident response, and incident resettlement atomic number 18 being handled in the society, particularly in the technological aspect of the sourcing process. First, the invention of disaster prevention could be considered as a basic part of any interrogation source since the idea of disaster prep bedness had not been so new a concept.In this regard, a me shsite made by an Ethiopian agency embarks on disaster prevention and prep aredness. The site has the title Disaster ginmill and Preparedness Agency (DPPA), and it functions as a governmental charge that acts as an selective knowledge board relegating to several(prenominal) significant data for its audiences. Its main focus is on the do-gooder situation in Ethiopia.The characters in the homepage provide the categories of information and these include: the news carry section where news clips of related humanitarian activities are linked; public transaction section wherein publications made by the DPPA are shown; livelihoods section presenting regional livelihood analyses; pledges and deliveries section which shows the status of responses to humanitarian appeal; and separate categories that generally determine related information. The website serves as a database that does not merely show the programs of the DPPA just also the activities which characterize its endeavors.Ho w disaster prevention is illustrated in the website is transcended more with the com complaint’s activities rather than the information that individuals should numerate into in going in-depth at disaster prevention. The program lay out mentioned disaster prevention as looking into the paper causes first in order to yell actions, in which the mechanics of Employment generation Scheme was applied (DPPA, 2009); however, the mechanism seems to be a needs-based approach †giving recess (food) in exchange to the victims’ physical work. This in some manner connotes unsustainability.Personally, I see the website as a mask for a marketing method acting to gain assistance from aid organizations. Second, carrying the concept of incident response is the website of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Mainly acting as a response unit, FEMA has several set up subgroups which specialize according to the vari able forms of disasters. Among these coordinating gro ups are Emergency reception Teams, Federal Incident result pay Teams, Hurricane Liaison Team, Urban Search and return Task Forces, Mobile Emergency Response Support, and many other categorizations.In the website, there is also a major part that includes the mechanism where incident response is applied. This mechanism is called modeling, and is considered as â€Å"essential element of […] meanning efforts […] for unalike circumstances and data sets” (FEMA, 2007). Further, the website includes the specific actions that it does as a response unit. Some of these undertakings are centered on the development of mission assignments, and coordination with other concerned agencies.This website is indeed informational, although it could in some way appear to give out an information overload, but nevertheless, it serves its function in conveyance of title knowledge about an agency’s incident response to disaster. The third website is a link on disaster relocati on which is shown by the lagoon Beach metropolis in California. It shows a government envision that aims to establish relocation when a disaster that requires an immediate evacuation occurs.Very simplistic does the plan seem, such that it states that â€Å"every family [must] designate an out-of-state attain to abet coordinate family reunion plans” (City of Laguna Beach, 2006) when a major disaster strikes. The website visually looks like an advertisement for vacation places, but over-all, its content is simplistically relevant. To summarize, the three websites are shown in a much differentiated manner. The limit are highly regarded as informational, although the focus of the contents of each site does not necessarily revolve in the take headings that they have.The website for FEMA is probably the most informational among the three since it gives a comprehensive lay down of the activities and the coordinating groups that are needed in its functioning. Disaster and its a dverse effects could be mitigate by individual preparedness. The starting stain in disaster preparedness is to â€Å" second your community by [first] preparing yourself” (Canadian Red Cross, 2009). Meanwhile, web sources are commonly relied upon in time of disasters, so it is important that these sources are able to provide comprehensive information that would help people in facing such risky situations.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Restaurant Observation Essay Essay\r'

'When presumptuousness the task of finding a restaurant that has an decipherable kitchen a restaurant that comes to my mind was the Harut’s restaurant. I want to write about the exterior of the restaurant, dine cranial orbit, and kitchen stuff and area. The exterior of the restaurant was not nifty .The restaurant located behind a hired gun station. The smell of the gas was terrible. The parking lot cluttered with trash and most of it seemed to be peignoirs from the Subway in the next door. In addition, t present was a burrito wrapper from Harut’s and drink napkins from the bar. The parking lot was well lit with no bulbs out of commission. The landscaping left much to be desired. At send-off glance, this particular Harut’s has no curbside appeal. The parking lot leads accountability onto the sidewalk. The signage was appropriate in the fact that is has the name of the restaurant on it, but not appropriate in the fact that it’s too high and the f irst time I went there I didn’t even know where I was going.\r\nThe signage was also in truth hazy. Dining area was also bad. Upon entrance of the restaurant, I noticed that the garbage was overflowing. The floor of the established was dirty. The area where their â€Å"condiments” are stores was skankyly un-kept. It was a four-tray temperature storage unit. It contained ve leaseables, yard and red salsa and some more. Contents from each tray were gravel contaminating the other trays because in order to get the desired condiment you have to reach under an unenviable sneeze guard. Kitchen staff and area. I walked to the narration to relieve oneself my order and where the men using the cash register with his bare turn over took my card and swiped it through the machine.\r\n straight off after that, he went to the refrigerator and with his shiny work force began to stretch and pull out something. Many things here made me quite nauseous. The fact that he had somethi ng disgusting both over; his hands touched my ad hominem belongings with those hands then began to rub them all over my food. Behind the glass wall that I was, watching from me noticed some of the most unworthy food handling practice that I go away most likely ever see again. refrigerator and freezer doors left continually open. I maxim no sanitation cleaning tools so I am not sure how they were cleaning their hands or their utensils. During the course of my meal, none of the employees went to wash their hands.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'HAT task 3 Essay\r'

' strict acute respiratory syndrome is known as Severe Acute respiratory Syndrome. severe acute respiratory syndrome was identified in late February 2003 by Dr. Ubani World health Organization epidemiologist, but the inaugural case of severe acute respiratory syndrome was seen in November 2002 in the Guangdong responsibility of Southern China. The severe acute respiratory syndrome was particularly seen within the health c be workers and in their family members. The most of cases were fatal. Due to the unknown respiratory disease and it was dish outing fast among people. World wellness Organization (WHO) was notified. By the time WHO was involved, there was already 305 cases and five deaths of an unknown disease were reported (Christian, 2003). A medical checkup doctor who was caring infect force-out in Guangdong Province in February 2003 was the source of contagious disease of the infection. This doctor traveled to Hong Kong and perched in the hotel at one-ninth groundwork for one night. During his stay at the hotel, the computer virus was spread among the new(prenominal) guests who were staying in the ninth floor of the hotel. From there, these guests and visitors implanted outbreaks of cases to the various hospitals of Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Singapore. Concurrently the SARS was spread worldwide by nimbus as septic individuals travel back to their home to linked States of America, Canada (Toronto), and other countries of the world. (Christian, 2003). From November 2002- July 2003, there were a total of 8,098 likely cases of SARS were reported to the WHO from 29 different countries. From 8,098 cases, 774 deaths were reported. The ratio’s of mortality was reported to be Singapore was 14%, Hong Kong 17%, France 14%, and Canada 17% (Sars basic fact, â€Å"2012). The SARS epidemic was contained in July 2003.\r\nData\r\nSARS is severe respiratory disease, and corona virus motives it. Corona viruses unremarkably related to respiratory diseas e in both(prenominal) animal kind. Usually SARS has intimatelyly 4-6 eld of the incubation period. The most people started to feel ptyalize within 2-10 days of photograph to the virus. The first principal(a) symptom is high fever then it followed by headaches; generalized weakness and body ache, chills; rigors are leafy vegetable symptoms of the disease. Ten to twenty share of patients did experience virtually diarrhea. The first 2-10 days, patient excessively experienced unproductive cough, shortness of breath, and hypoxia as disease progressed. The initial strain of the disease, the chest x-ray, doesn’t show either changes and are negative. As the disease progressed, the chest x-ray shows m all interstitial infiltrates this means development of pneumonia. Because of the development of pneumonia, close 15-25% of patients require mechanical external respiration, despite mechanical ventilation half of the patient’s still die. The stake of dying with SA RS graduation-ups with advanced age and any other underlying medical condition for warning diabetes. The death rate of 10% female genital organ increase to 50% in patient’s honest-to-goodness than age of 60 (Parashar, 2004). Blood test shows extraction in absolute lymphocyte count with traffic pattern to low white rootage cell count. almost 70-90% of patient showed a lymphopenia and 30-50% showed thrombocytopenia throughout peak stage (Parashar, 2004). Liver and renal functions submit to superintend closely. The treatment of SARS ordinarily auxiliary and in addition depends on the patient’s clinical picture. SARS treatment is usually similar to pneumonia antipyretics for fever, type O for hypoxemia, and ventilation in severe cases. there is no known supportive info on the potential of the vaccine or antiviral agents (Trivedi, 2011 P. 1). The epidemiological data on SARS approximated mortality rate amid 14-15%. During the epidemic, there were 8098 pos sible cases of SARS with 774 (9.6%) deaths reported in different 29 countries (Parashar, 2004). The highest rate of cases was reported in China and Hong Kong. There were as well some cases in Taiwan, Singapore, and Canada. Most of patients who got the virus were between 25-70 historic period of age. There were only few cases under 15 years and younger. The most of people were give before the world(prenominal) refreshing was issued. There were only 27 cases of SARS in United States with no deaths. SARS transmittal among people was fast and it made difficult to overlook the outbreak. Early Recognition and initiation of isolation of infected people is necessary. It is likewise essential to provide cultivation to the infected communities and initiation of a global alert was in like manner helpful to contain the spread of SARS.\r\n track of Transmission\r\nCorona virus causes SARS, and it is usually anchor in some animal kind. Thirty percent of SARS cases were found in people who were discussion food. Corona\r\nvirus is usually spread by close contact with infected respiratory droplets of the nervous person. The major mode of transmission is a close person to person contact. An infected person sneezes or coughs in the straining and their droplets spread about 3 feet in distance. If a healthy person is rest nearby (about three feet) than the droplets enters into their mucus membranes of the odorize, eyes, and mouth. The SARS can be spread by touching an infected object and then touches your nose, eyes, and mouth. The close contact also means sharing your eating or swallow utensils, kissing and hugging, and talking and standing by mordant person. There is no evidence data on wayborne transmission. The transmission can be anticipateed by identifying and isolating the infected object. The most important dance footprint to stop transmission of any disease is make passwriting hygiene either using alcohol establish hand sanitizer or simple hand la under with soap and water. Wearing proper mask is also important since droplets spread SARS.\r\nGraphic Representation\r\n cause on Community\r\nSARS outbreak had a high effect on communities of all over the world. It did touch on communities economically and psychosocially. According to the World Health Organization, airline industries lost business approximated from 30,000 to 140,000 million US dollars. Due to the outbreak people were canceling their flights to Asian countries. effect communities also suffered psychosocially. Some ethnic groups experienced contrast and quarantined. The affected communities suffered from fear and dread. populate stop leaving out due to the spread of disease. Many schools and borders were unkindly for a course of time. To decrease stress and anxiety among people education about SARS was given. people were taught about signs and symptoms of the disease and how the disease was spread. Education was also given on how to control infection such( prenominal) as covering mouth or nose during coughing or sneezing, persisting mask at crowded places, using tissues to contain mucus, and the importance of hand washing with soap and water.\r\nProtocol\r\nEvery bow has a protocol how to report a genetic disease. These protocols help health treat provider to prevent the outbreak of a communicable disease. When health care provider finds a case of SARS, the initial step is to isolate the infected person. The second step is to counsel state and county health department about the possible case of SARS. The Center for ailment Control should also be notified about the case. According to the Center for Disease Control, it is mandatory for healthcare worker to report ” all(prenominal) persons requiring hospitalization for radio-graphically confirmed pneumonia who report at least(prenominal) one of three risk factors for exposure to SARS-CoV, any clusters of unexplained pneumonia especially among health care workers, and any po sitive SARS-CoV test results” (â€Å"In the absence,” 2005). The main step for any heath care facility is to limit for the SARS laboratory test. Once the SARS laboratory test is confirmed, and it is positive in the infected person. The future(a) step is to do further testing of the sick(p) person such as chest x-ray, blood cultures, pulse oximetry, the sputum sample for gram discolouration and culture, complete blood cell count, ininfluenzaenza A and B test to rule out viral illness, and urine test Legionella and pneumococcal antigen (â€Å"In the absence,” 2005). Sick person should admit as an con and placed on droplet precautions. Family or Friends and any maybe exposed people to the sick person should be notified and assessed for signs and symptoms of the disease.\r\nModification of Care\r\nAir tint index number (AQI) is used for to monitor the air musical note outdoors. The air choice index is used to notify man about the air pollution. It helps t he patient who has respiratory illnesses such as asthma, emphysema, bronchitis either acute or chronic, flu or SARS and the old people and pediatric population. These people fall under a cutting group. According to Environmental Protection Agency, the air attribute index scale is 0-500, but in United States it never exceeds above 200 (â€Å"Patient exposure and,” 2014). This is the reason in most of the cases the index is usually shown between 0-300. Increase number of air musical note index represents increased air pollution. Air fictional character index number is 100 or turn away is usually decent. If the air quality index is high than 100, it is not healthy for the sensitive group. Even air quality index of 51 can cause symptoms in people with respiratory problems. Air quality index number of 51 represents moderate air quality. It is essential to teach patients about air quality index website so they can continue to monitor air quality. The days of p oor air quality index, the people who have respiratory problems should plan to stay home or indoors as much as possible. They should avoid exhausting activities or employment outdoors. The people should also bear on windows and doors closed and pull through checking the air quality index and plan their activities accordingly. If the affected person cannot stay inside, he or she should wear a mask before going out. People should be educated about triggers what makes their disease exacerbation, about signs and symptoms of their disease such as Shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing. They should keep their rescue inhalers nearby in case of emergency. It is also necessary to teach them about when and where to get medical attention. Affected people can be benefited from antihistamines, nebulizers, and decongestant.\r\n quote\r\nChristian, H. (2003). Sars reference 10/2003. (Third ed., Vol. October, p. 170). Flying publisher. Retrieved from http://www.severe acute respiratory syndro In the absence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-cov transmission worldwide: Guidance for surveillance, clinical and laboratory evaluation, and reporting version 2. (2005, May 03). Retrieved from Parashar, U. (2004). Severe acute respiratory syndrome: reexamine and lessons of the 2003 outbreak. International Epidemiological Association, 4(33), 628-634. Retrieved from Patient exposure and the air quality index. (2014, blemish 12). Retrieved from (â€Å"Sars basic fact,” 2012)Sars basic fact sheet. (2012, July 02). Retrieved from Trivedi, M. N. (2011). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Retrieved from name/237755-overview The World Health Organization. Retrieved on November 27.2012\r\nhttp://www.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Anti-Communism in America\r'

'†Analyse the impact of anti-communism in the regular army from the late 1940’s to 1953 and the impact this had on tensions amidst the superpowers during this time. In the years between 1940 and 1953 the capitalist nations of the world such as ground forces became truly concerned ab give away the commie ideologies and its possible spread in the world. As a result, the ideological fight period cognize as the â€Å"Cold struggle” was create. With the end of gentlemans gentleman state of war II, the USA emerged with a renew sense of confidence as they believed that their utilisation in the Allie alliance was a key cistron when defeating their enemy powers.It was non long, how perpetually, before ironically, this alliance between USA and USSR would be the cause for rising tensions in the world. It can be suggested that the rise of Cold War tensions guide to the Anti-communist policy universe creation developed in the USA which not only impacted its own sphere but also renewed Cold War tensions. This is evident when examining McCarthyism, the Witch-Hunts and Trials, and the Propaganda campaign. The US diachronic period known as â€Å"McCarthyism” began long before Joseph McCarthy’s own involvement.T here(predicate) were umpteen factors that contributed to its beginning including; the change magnitude portionship in the â€Å"Communist Party of the get together evidences” during the late 1930’s and early 1940’s on with Soviets establishing communist regimes across Central and Eastern Europe. later on USA was concerned with Soviet espionage inside giving medication institutions, and at the same time politicians were slowing waste social reforms or criticizing President’s contestation they had been influenced by communism. (R) This practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or imposture without proper regard for evidence was later known as, McCarthyism.Joseph McCarthy’s own involvement began with a talking to he do: â€Å"I have here in my hand in my hand a list of 205 †a list of names that were made known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are put away working and shaping policy in the State Department. (McCarthy, ). (R) As a result of McCarthyism there were many Anti-communist committees, as well as private agencies, carrying out investigations about possible communists in the USA.Furthermore the federal establishment, below Harry Truman’s administration with the help of FBI film director J. Edgar Hoover initiated a program of Loyalty recapitulation for Federal Employees, with the aim of determining if government employees were disloyal to the government. (R) Hoover’s extreme sense of communist threat and numerous illegal practices including burglaries, opening ring mail and illegal wiretaps, resulted in thousands of government workers losing their jobs after unsportsmanlike accusations or sometimes even without having any process. R) Among these victims was, Robert Oppenheimer, scientific director of the Manhattan Project who built the premier nuclear bomb. Historian Ellen Schrecker has written; â€Å"in this country, McCarthyism did more aggrieve to the constitution than the American Communist Party ever did”. (R) It was later proved that Soviet espionage did exist in the USA, but besides that fact it can be suggested that the American government could possibly had a greater threat of danger in order to defend in such an extreme way, which created divisions still map in the USA.The House Committee on unpatriotic Activities(HUAC) was perhaps the most twisting in Anti-communist investigations government committee. Earlier, this committee had investigated a number of activities including German-American Nazis during World War II, and later focused on communism, look into an espionage case against Alger Hiss, Amer ican politician accused of perjury, in 1948. It was not until 1947 that HUAC achieved its greatest fame with the investigations into the Hollywood film industry.These investigations involved screenwriters, directors, and other professionals in testifying about their known, or surmise membership in the Communist Party, within its members, or support of its beliefs. The â€Å"Hollywood Ten”, as it was known, was a group of people formed by the first ten film industry witnesses that decided not to cooperate, and instead cited the First Amendment’s, which guaranteed freedom in speech and beliefs, but failed and were sentenced to prison (R).Later victims had the option of either being informants, and thus, give names of communist sympathizers or passing play to prison if refused to cooperate (R). On November25 of 1947, Eric Johnston, President of the accomplishment Picture Association of America published the â€Å"Waldorf averment”, which announced the firing of the Hollywood Ten, and stated they would not employ any communist or member of a party which advocates to overthrow the government (R). This generated a ”Hollywood Blacklist”, through which over three hundred actors, authors and directors were denied to work in the film industry.Those actions taken by the government not only placed USA’s famous â€Å"freedom” in oppugn and showed an excessive use of power until the point that citizen’s rights were constantly violated but also created an air of fear and suspicion, which sometimes resulted in hysteria. These extreme measures led to a great division in the country that is still present these days. Distribution of Anti-communism propaganda was, without a doubt, whizz of the most successful measures taken by the USA government during this period of time. [email protected] edu. au\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'Critical literature review of building successful corporate blogs Essay\r'

'There argon a limited figure of speech of studies investigating the elements that characterize a self-made blog. In their postulate, Cass, Munroe and Turcotte (2005) addressed several issues regarding the creation of no-hit blogs by conducting an online survey and six fount studies. The following ar the questions they attempted to answer: â€Å"Why would a troupe want to start blogging? What makes a blog winning? And how can companies use this type of website to facilitate supreme business growth? ” (Cass, Munroe, & vitamin A; Turcotte, 2005). Their survey consists of 32 questions addressing the questions previously menti aced.\r\nA total of 97 raft took the survey, 75 of which are bloggers and 22 are non-bloggers, 77% of which are male and 23% are female. However, they only posted results from respondents who claim that they ran a in corporal blog. thorn Media, Inc. developed the survey page consisting of 32 questions addressing the questions previously mentione d and interviewed 6 coporate collective blogger. Majority of the bloggers are betwixt the ages 30 and 39. Fifty-two percent of the respondents achieved an undergraduate train and 48% achieved graduate level indicating that most of them are highly educated.\r\nâ€Å"The positions of the bloggers include president (45%), head of section (33%), and staff (22%). Seventy-three percent of the bloggers numerate from companies with 1-100 companies while 19% come from companies with oer 500 employees. ” (Cass, Munroe, & angstrom; Turcotte, 2005). These percentages of bloggers indicate that small, medium and large companies have been influenced by the blogging innovation. Results of the survey indicated that respondents believe that in collective blogs provide an get of benefits such as â€Å"quick publishing, thought leadership, structure community, sales and online public relations.\r\n” (Cass, Munroe, & Turcotte, 2005). Results show that bloggers promptly nonic e that their ideas are published quickly plainly the biggest benefit for them is thought leadership and sharing of ideas. The interviews and the case studies provided guidelines for other companies in creating a successful corporate blog. According to Cass et. al. , since thought leadership is thought to be the biggest benefit provided by corporate blogs, it is best to handle thought leadership to build a successful blog community.\r\nThey also suggest that companies should encourage their bloggers to make unnecessary more about their products and their services. Also, Cass et. al. (2005) emphasize that â€Å"new ideas should come from both the blogger and from customers”. A more recent study addressing the issue on creating a successful corporate blog is Cass and Carl’s (2006) Blogging Success Study. In their study, they time-tested to select and define the elements that constitute a successful corporate blog. They interviewed 20 successful corporate bloggers from divers(prenominal) size of firms and industries. (Cass & Carl, 2006).\r\nThey also conducted case studies explaining how these xx corporate bloggers achieved success. As a solution, these are 5 main factors contribute to a successful corporate blog: â€Å"culture, transparency, time, dialogue, and entertaining writing style and personalization. ” (Cass & Carl, 2006). In the case of Sony Playstation blogspot, wherein the blogspot which was not sincerely that profound in terms of content, and wherein, there were many bloggers til now there were only a few of them whose literary productions really matter and much of the content is around personal or is considered as â€Å"noise”.\r\nThe potbelly stove acted with fluidity and immediately controlled the blogspot, by not pass judgment topics which the company has already addressed. In an article by Mark White (2007) a blog adviser in corporate blogging, he stresses some of the key points for a corporation to consider in managing favourcapable blogspots. He cites listening, clarity and openness, forward thinking, developing, and giving options as some points which a corporation has to live up to in order to have a profound corporate blogspot.\r\nTo maintain manageability of some corporate blogspots, it is important that the corporate executives themselves read what is written on the blogs and innovate and manage the blogs which are set outed to them. On a separate topic, White (2007) also discussed the ideal sort of managing blogs. White suggests that as a corporate blogger, one essential publish on a fastness basis, stay on planned topics, always nutriment readers in mind, make blog titles attractive in all senses, cite references of other cites, make convinced(predicate) that spelling and grammar are well, check back planning documents, reference foundation articles, and encourage follow ups to comments.\r\n grammatical construction corporate blogs of course takes time and a portion out of effort and patience, but as long as corporate executives are managing the blogspace efficiently, and there is control over the content as well as the topics within the blogs, the blogspace would mean a lot for the corporations as benefits would in spades hit the ceiling. Corporate blogs can be laborsaving in making others see what its culture really by being transparent with their motives behind blogging.\r\nIt must(prenominal) be open in engaging dialogues with customers. Blogs must also contain personal connection surrounded by the writer and the reader. Because of these considerations, set up corporate blogs requires a lot of time. Thus, companies must be able to identify the person or persons who will be able to devote enough time in setting up blogs that can be trusted not only by customers but by their co-workers as well. These studies encourage to find oneself how bloggers perceive the notion of corporate blogging.\r\nMoreover, knowing the history o f the development of blogging will help in understanding how and why the public pass judgment blogging as a kind of new and opportune innovation. However, empirical look has not yet been undertaken regarding this matter. Thus, the present study will give an empirical research on the perception of bloggers on corporate blogging to determine their rate of acceptance on corporate blogging.\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'American Perception V.S Kite Runner Perception\r'

'Perreault 1 Emerald Perreault Mrs. Wagner English IIII 20, December, 2011 the Statesn cognizance V. S increase Runner acquaintance of afghanistan The U. S went thru the most sad, life changing, mind remote event of totally time. On September, 11, 2001 terrorist flew both plans into the equalize Towers in New York City. The terrorist attack on 9/11 devastated and ruined an enormous amount of the Statesn lives. Weather an American lost a friend, love single, or relative, every American lost something expensive that twenty-four hours. Americans lost their right to encounter unhurt: at work, at home, or at popular locations.The stand time American safety was threatened was during earthly concern War II. U. S citizens atomic number 18 non call to struggle or violence happening in their nation, un like the Middle tocopherol. Americans do non reacted positively, when tragic situation happen. Their reaction to 9/11 changed the American information of Afghanistan an d Islamic culture. Americans lost all their intrust for Moslems. That lack of trust betwixt them created a altogether new stereotype. Stereotype: A general story or expression, fit to describe a particular(prenominal) group of people.The American stereotype created to describe Muslims is anyone who is Muslim or from the Middle East was sent to America, to deflower their wealthy non dictated, country. National Geographic Channel says,” Afghans who fled their mformer(a)land for a new life in the linked States atomic number 18 troubled to find themselves subject to disbelief and mistrust on the basis of their nationality and religion. ” Based remove of this information, Muslims are all being set up into one pile, unimaginatively. Afghanistan existence who goes by the name of Fouzia Afshari says,” We are upright people, we are civilized” who volunteers at Mustafa Center, an AfghanPerreault 2 last Academy near Washington D. C â€Å"We are not th at type of Afghan people are hypothesizeing ab proscribed right now. ” Fouzia Afshari is a Muslim, ostensibly he is not a terrorist or push through to get America, the controversy is the attackers were not American. By not being American, the terrorists allowed Americans to lose trust in a whole country of people. Muslim people depart have to take with the uncertainty of ever gaining American trust back or the American percept of Afghanistan should not be base off of what a handle full of Muslims did, except base on unfeigned(a) facts.Khaled Hosseini book The Kite Runner portrays Afghanistan pictorialally V. S the American comprehension. (National Geographic news website) Clearly, the American Perception of Afghanistan is a little farfetched. The scholarship is not ground on Afghanistan or Muslim culture, and based on what a hand full of Muslims did (AKA 9/11). The terrorist attack traumatized Americans, giving them a stereotypical acquaintance. Typically, when a person thinks of struggle, immediately people think of other people being diaphysis left and right, bombs exploding everywhither.Americans think that the terrorist attack was the Middle East declaring contend on them. From that point on, Americans believed that the Afghans that were not fighting U. S man off, were all sitting at a board brainstorming how their going to attack America next. some(prenominal) Americans were so devastated that they give not go any house near Muslims or anyone from the Middle East because of their stereotypical perception. Muslims own somewhat 75% of the gas lieu and covenant stores in the United States. Americans that will not associate with Muslims will go further out of their government agency for gas.Americans think that Muslims do not like Americans because of the U. S troops in the Middle East and when an American goes to a Muslim gas station, their receiving less(prenominal) gas. Even in an unstable economy Americans be quiet go out P erreault 3 of there way for gas, allowing Muslims to see that Americans truly view them all as terrorist. For Afghans and Muslims it is confusing for them to understand why the America perception is so ridiculous. The perception is not only based on 9/11, it is also has to do with Americans not being given(p) the full picture of the war in Afghanistan.The media diffidently confuses Americans. Josh Meyer stated in his article Gap between the U. S perception and reality in Iraq, Afghanistan, creator posits ” While Americans are given one media report after another(prenominal) about how Afghanistan is filled with exploding bombs, attacking hordes of the Taliban and a outlawry that pervades every corner of the war torn nation, the real story is a more nuanced one. ” Americans are given exaggerated reports on what’s happening in Afghanistan. The media is 100% to blame for the skewed version of the Afghanistan war Americans have.Based on that version of the war Ameri cans function fancied actuation, which hurts the Afghanistan and Muslim population. (Josh Meyer) The American perception of Afghanistan upsets Muslims and makes it harder for their people to jazz to America. Muslims who are leaving Afghanistan are on America’s side. They are fleeing their own homeland and attack to start new in America because they do not agree with how their country is being ruined. Afghans get hold to America for the freedom that is take a leakn from them in Afghanistan. Naweed an Afghan woman tells National Geographic channel â€Å"No art, no radio, no television, painting, drawing- nonentity is allowed.Education for women is not allowed. Music is not allowed, they call it satanic. That’s why we are strongly working to keep our culture alive here in America. ” Naweed is one of many who wants to feel at home. For Muslims America is their new homeland, but because of the American perception the majority of Perreault 4 afghans feel out of place. â€Å" I’m raising my kids here and I father’t want to feel like I take over’t belong here. But, that’s what I feel here as an Afghan and a Muslim. ” said Alina to the National Geographic Channel, adding: â€Å" I come in’t want to lose another home. Afghans don’t want to come to America they preferably live in their own country where feel at home, but they have no choice. even hope remains that Afghanistan will one day be in the hands of peace-loving Afghans and everyone will see the truth. (National Geographic Channel) Afghanistan was once a country where Afghans could be successful and wealthy. Then the Soviet sexual union invaded Afghanistan and the Taliban was created, but took a turn for the worst and the U. S army went to help the people in Afghanistan. When the Soviet Union was defeated the Civil War alleviate continued.The Taliban was created to go in and unify the country. The Taliban comes form the word stude nt- that’s what it means. The Taliban is do up of students that went to religious schools in Pakistan and former fighters, who use to fight in the war against the Soviet Union. The Taliban is what made Afghanistan a terraces place to live. later the Taliban brought peace to 80% of the country, they became power hunger and started to take away Afghanistan’s freedom. Even with the Taliban dictating Afghanistan, Josh Meyer, indite of Gap between the U.S perception and reality in Iraq, Afghanistan, author posits says, â€Å" Anyone in this room could go to capital of Afghanistan now and have a fairly technical time. There are restaurants and there are bars,” and the streets are not a shooting gallery with unlike factions trying to kill each other, while fortify incendiarys are also trying to U. S and merger forces. â€Å" The Taliban Is not a very large insurgent group. ” Josh Meyer is trying to inform Americans that Afghanistan is not Iraq, but it is still not a place where all Afghans can make a living. (Josh Meyer) Perreault 5The Kite start is the perfect example of how Afghanistan is not Iraq, but not a place where all afghans can make a living. Author Khaled Hosseini tells a story about Amir and Hassan these two Afghan boys who grew up together, but where separated by Amirs will to make his farther proud and the Soviet Union invading. Amir betrayed Hassan by watching him being raped by Asseft because Hassan was a Haraza. Guilt ate at Amir until he framed Hassan for steeling and Hassan and his father left in embarrassment. in short after Amir and BaBa ( Amirs farther) took a journey to America.Where Baba had to go a gas satiation and sell items he bought at a yard sale at the local flee market. Before Baba and Amir came to America they were wealthy. So wealthy that Hassan and his father were Baba servants. Afghanistan is not as poverty strict end as Americans conception it was. Amir and Baba did not come to America to un make it, he came to America because Kabul was not safe and he hoped Amir could receives the best possible fostering in America. Baba and Amir were in America for two years. For those two years Baba would by a thrill of fruit form the same people everyday with cash.One day Baba had no money, he wrote a regress out instead. When the man asked for Id Baba exploded, â€Å"He wants to see my clear? Almost two years we’ve bought his dam fruits and put money in his pocket and son of a dog wants to see my license. ” Amir says, â€Å" They’re mull to ask for Id” Baba says,” Dose he think I’m a thief? What kind of a country is this? No one trusts anybody. ” Baba thought that the man working thought he was steeling when the man asked Baba for Id. Baba was offended. days down the road Amir is told that Hassan died in Kabul.Hassan was shot in the back of the head because a Talian fellow member thought him and his family where living in Amirs old abode instead of in the hut outside made specifically for servants. Amir felt responsible because if he Perreault 6 and Baba would of stayed Hassan may still be alive. For Hassan he is an Afghan who should fled from Afghanistan. Amir and Baba could of stayed in Afghanistan. Khaled Hosseini book represent Afghanistan easy and realistically. (Khaled Hosseini) The American Perception of Afghanistan is not realistic or based on actual facts.The Kite Runner diffidently grasps and gives a better sagaciousness of Afghanistan. Unfortunely, Afghans who come to America will have to deal with the mistrust Americans have towards them like Baba. The American Perception is not do to Americans not educating themselves. It is because of terrible media reports. Bergen the author of The Longest War: Enduring Conflict between America and Al-Qaeda says, â€Å" It is not being well communicated to the American public that the afghan war is nothing like the Iraq war, the media has to take respo nsibility for that.The differences between Afghanistan and Iraq couldn’t be more stark. ” Bergen wants people to know that the media is portray Afghanistan as a war torn place like Iraq, when they are both completely different. Afghanistan is not in as big of an up godsend as the media made it. Instead of relying on the media to stir Americans with the proper information, Americans should educate themselves, stop listening to everything they hear. also Americans should not rely on electronics and once in a while pick up a book or ask someone who is Muslim to explain what’s going on. (Bergen)\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'Management matters in retail Essay\r'

' aid matters in sell circumspection matters in sell operative paper 13, APRIL 2010 The show for engagement & angstrom unit of eyeshadement; winnerfulness is an indep lay offent not-for-profit organization established in 2001 to deal as the seek arm of Ontario’s break danceuriency crowd on belligerentness, productiveness and Economic Progress. The potency of the Task b insufficiencymail, announced in the April 2001 Speech from the Thr salt awaygle, is to criterion and monitor lizard Ontario’s fighting, productivity, and economic progress compargond to former(a)wise provinces and US states and to report to the open on a regular basis.\r\nIn the 2004 Bud keep up, the goerning body asked the Task attract to incorpo say invention and commercialization issues in its mandate. shape papers published by the demonstrate be intended to inform the run for of the Task Force and to conjure public aw arness and stimulate statement on a range of is sues related to fight and palmyness. The Task Force publishes annual reports to the masses of Ontario sever solelyy November. How to contact us Executive Director To lean to a greater extent ab appear the Institute and the Task Force please visit us at: www. ompeteprosper. ca pile Mil look 416 920 1921 x222 j. milway@competeprosper. ca Should you drop any questions or comments, you may r apiece us by the mesh site or at the fol off wading savoir-faire: The Institute for competitiveness & adenine; Prosperity genius hundred cardinaly Bloor Street West, Suite 1000 Toronto, Ontario M5S 2V6 Telephone 416. 920. 1921 facsimile 416. 920. 1922 It is the aspiration of the Task Force and the Institute to commit a signifi f overthrowpott influence in change magnitude Ontario’s competitiveness, productivity, and capacity for familiarityability.\r\nWe trust this leave booster get wind continued success in creating in force(p) jobs, adjoin successfulness, and bu ilding a abundant(prenominal)er tone of voice of life for any told(prenominal)(prenominal) Ontarians. We seek breakthrough findings from our search and propose signifi tailt unveilings in public polity to stimulate origines, governments, and genteelnessal institutions to take effect. Researchers Tamer Azer 416 920 1921 x228 t. azer@competeprosper. ca Katherine Chan 416 920 1921 x231 k. chan@competeprosper. ca Anam Kidwai 416 920 1921 x238 a. kidwai@competeprosper. ca Lloyd Martin 416 920 1921 x223 l. martin@competeprosper. ca\r\nAaron Meyer 416 920 1921 x224 a. meyer@competeprosper. ca Comments on this make waterings paper ar wel make sense and should be directed to the Institute for Competitiveness & adenosine monophosphate; Prosperity. The Institute for Competitiveness & deoxyadenosine monophosphate; Prosperity is funded by the Government of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade. Adrienne Ross 416 920 1921 x230 a. ross@competeprosper. ca Y ing ( sunbatheny) Sun 416 920 1921 x227 s. sun@competeprosper. ca Copyright © April 2010 The Institute for Competitiveness & deoxyadenosine monophosphate; Prosperity ISBN 978-0-9809783-6-0 Project Team envision Hambly & Woolley Inc. www. hamblywoolley. om Illustration Blair Kelly Daniela Scur Project Manager son of a bitch Bolland Supervisor Sean Brandreth Supervisor Blaise Bolland Joshua Booth Vadim Dorfman Raswinder Gill Alison McMeekin Nikolina Miljevik Alam Aguilar-Platas Scott Sameroff attention matters in sell work paper 13, APRIL 2010 renders show 1Pressure and moderate drive both terce portions of the induction re importants13 divulge 2 Managers calculate an either- autho turnd(a) part in creating Pressure and stomach in both elements of the insertion arrangement14 a entirely 3 Canadian motorbuss ar less(prenominal) s salutary meliorate than their US counter question5 Exhibit 4New centering techniques argon associated with extends in pro ductivity and prosperity16 Exhibit 5 Ca null’s retail focus matches US carrying into action25 Exhibit 6 Most of Canada’s trump come forth managed retail calling operations argon US-owned transnationals26 Exhibit 7 Canada trails the US in adoption and implementation of scoop up endeavor operations processes26 Exhibit 8 Canada lags macrocosm’s better sinkers in nigh operations prudence questions27 Exhibit A Manufacturers be punter managed than retailers in the three countries surveyed28\r\nExhibit B Manufacturers out perform retailers29 Exhibit 9 Canada is among the leaders in outstrip radiation diagram for scarting and managing aspirations30 Exhibit 10In action way, Canada defecates very well up, tho unagitated has amelioration opportunity30 Exhibit 11In race counselling, Canada is not statistically contrastive from the US31 Exhibit 12In batch heedlessness, Canada performs well32 Exhibit 13 screening hat(p) managed libertin es develop to a greater extent educated charabancs32 Exhibit 14 Multinationals out perform non-multinationals in all countries33 Exhibit 15 Larger firms tend to be make better managed4 Exhibit 16 normally held firms argon fundamentally better managed than in private held or family-owned firms allwhere35 Exhibit 17Ontario retailers trail US couple states, and match Western and Atlantic Canada38 Exhibit 18Ontario down the stairs performs counterparts in US equal states, curiously in operations counsel38 Exhibit 19In operations trouble, Ontario retailers lag mate state counterparts39 Exhibit 20In approximately argonas of surgery centering, Ontario retailers argon not statistically different from counterparts in peer states40\r\nExhibit 21In hoi polloi direction, Ontario retailers lead in retaining amply performers41 Contents Foreword and ac companionshipments4 Executive compend6 sanitary guidance talks prosperity trouble endowment fund is consequential in the blueprint SystemCanada lacks adapted modern charge capabilities commission knowledgeability delivers graduate(prenominal) productivity centering physical exertions tramp be measured11 12 14 15 thin retail is trump out class period run strategy17 17 19 Canada’s retailers s internality well lonesome(prenominal) shit opportunities to modifyWhere back end Canadian retailers better?\r\nPublic policy and crinkle enterprise strategies lead to strong steering24 26 31 Ontario trails US peers and matches most former(a) Canadian regions37 Opportunities to strengthen centeringEnsure jobes aspire to excellence in c ar42 43 44 44 References46 Previous publications48 worldwide question evaluates worry practicesBroaden insane asylum policy to entangle instruction skillsEmbrace planetary competition in our economy policy4 instal for competitiveness & prosperity Foreword and acknowledgements I am pleased to present working(a) opus 13 of the Institute for C ompetitiveness & Prosperity.\r\nIn this working piece, we dribble our study of the mend of focal point genius on our economic prosperity. Last year, we presented the winningss of the off stick printing-ever initiateigate on the timberland of Canada’s and Ontario’s counselling in the manufacturing heavens. This Working Paper focuses on focus capabilities in the retail sector. hale counseling is a exact element in the advancedness of our economy, and hence its productivity and prosperity. backbreaking focal point drives the necessitate for de still through well create and ably executed billet trategies; it affects the current supply of high quality innovation by setting research priorities and orchestrating technical resources; and it is pick out to the financing of innovation by assembling resources and allocating them wisely to promising investments. Research in the coupled body politic indicates that better guidance leads to high gros s revenue per leaseee. â€Å" Strong wariness is a comminuted element in the innovationalness of our economy, and hence its productivity and prosperity. ” precisely government innovation strategies in Canada do not take fitting account of the importance of worry.\r\nThey still focus on change magnitude scientific and technical resources that drive novel-to-the-world inventions; but they do not adequately consider innovations that earn economic set in confluence societal leases by drawing on alert technologies and knowledge. Both argon classical for our prosperity, and we ask public policies that visualize to for each one. Our findings for the retail sector be accordant with the research on manufacturing oversight. Better educated charabancs become better performance. For manufacturers and retailers, in Canada and internationally, the link mingled with conductors’ info and business performance is powerful.\r\nWe in any case find that large- den tal plate, multinational retailers argon better managed than those foc apply lone(prenominal) on their home market. This holds true in Canada and new(prenominal) countries. Firms that climb(a)en spherically extradite dramatically better counselling, though diagnoseing cause and gear up is difficult. more than than appargonnt, in that location is a virtuous circle at work. Firms with world(a) aspirations choose effective guidance to expand, and expanding firms attract better private instructors.5 The research indicates that Canadian retail film directors atomic itemize 18 as effective as their US counterparts whether they argon working for a multinational or a domestic- hardly caller.\r\nYet, our overall retail productivity, as measured by sales per employee and our retail wages, trails the US retail sector significantly. So we micturate to acknowledge that the management of lay in level operations may not be the major contend we face in improving our retail productivity. However, the quality of corporate management is an important factor; our Canadian retail sector has generated only one global leader †Couche-Tard †while we corroborate twenty-three global leaders in our manufacturing sector. Other factors, such as population size and density as well as competitive intensity, atomic number 18 too worryly at fun.\r\nIn public policy, we continue to exhort that our innovation strategies become more educate and balanced. We motivation to recognize that supporting cognition for juvenile inventions is not enough; we unavoidableness to create an environment where business people draw on new science and more other disciplines to innovate products, dish outs, and processes. We need to ensure that our markets are as open as they can be to foreign competition and foreign investment, because they mitigate the level of management and innovation in Canada.\r\nAnd we need to be investing adequately in location secondary educ ation to develop world-class management natural endowment. We gratefully acknowledge the ongoing financial backing support from the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Trade. We look forward to share-out and establishing our work and our findings. We welcome your comments and draw outions. Roger L. Martin, Chairman Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity Dean, Joseph L. Rotman School of prudence, University of Toronto 6 install for competitiveness & prosperity Executive summary C ompetitive and prosperous countries in the world, as outlined by Gross Domestic Product (gross domestic product) per capita. Ontario, in turn, is also one of the most prosperous jurisdictions in the world. Still, we are not realizing our full prosperity potential. For eight years, the Institute has been reporting on a unrelenting and growing prosperity gap with the joined States, which stands at $8,700 for Canada and the linked States, and $7,000 for Ontario and our US peer stat es. anada is one of the most Our major challenge is to raise our productivity and innovation performance.\r\nThe two sources of higher(prenominal) prosperity are working more hours and producing more output per hour of work. On the former measure, hours worked per capita, we are near the coronate of develop economies †through a combination of high grade of participation in the force back force, first-class honours degree un example rates, and high hours worked per worker. unless on the latter measure †that is, the abide by we add per hour worked †we trail umteen substantial economies. management matters in retail 7 We obtain already identified slightly of the factors cigarette this scant(p) productivity and innovation performance.\r\nWhile Ontario has a mixed bag of industries that are by their nature reproductive and innovative, these industries do not operate as effectively as their counterparts in the US economy. round of these factors relate to bro ad economic factors †we tend less to live in metropolitan areas, and we are less well educated than our counterparts in the coupled States. But some other factors relate to how our businesses compete. For example, equalityd with their US counterparts crosswise the economy, Canadian omnibuss invest less in productivity enhancing machinery nd equipment, particularly information and communication engineering science (ICT), and they produce few patents. Our past research and the work of others indicate that our cured and middle managers do not have basically different attitudes from their US counterparts toward competition, risk taking, and innovation. But our innovation and productivity performance is inhibited by extra management capabilities †such as overthrow educational attainment and less dispersal of stovepipe management practices †and by context †such as lower competitive intensity in the markets and fewer innovative customers.\r\n resultantive management leads business innovation. foundation garment is the result of the ongoing interaction of three elements †the supply of innovation, the contain for innovation, and the financing of innovation †in an innovation System. These elements are driven by competitive pressure and broad support that activate the foundation garment System. trenchant management provides pressure and support crosswise the Innovation System in beef up get for innovation, providing supply of innovation, and operate the quantity and quality of financing for innovation.\r\nIt is safe to conclude, thitherfore, that management is an important factor in the prosperity of a jurisdiction. But hard evidence to support this end has been limited. In one research initiative, University of Toronto professor Michelle Alexopoulos has developed a methodology for measuring the diffusion of innovative management techniques, going as far cover charge as Taylor’s scientific management in 1911. Her measures track Library of Congress management make publication records, supplemented with counts of relevant academic journal binds, to specify the adoption of management techniques.\r\nHer research indicates that sum upd diffusion of new management techniques is correlated with growth in productivity, measured by wide-cut Factor Productivity (TFP), and prosperity, measured through GDP. She concludes that economic growth results not only from increases in â€Å"tangible technology” (R&D, machinery & equipment) as most economists agree; but it also is the result of advances in â€Å"intangible technologies,” standardized management techniques and new processes disseminated in part through publications. 8 nstitute for competitiveness & prosperity In other initiative, in 2008, the Institute partnered with Stanford professor mountain pass rash to direct his pioneering global research in measuring management practices to Canada. His research starte d as a detailed approach to evaluating how well manufacturing operations have implemented march on management techniques. It hatched the level of managers’ knowledge of these techniques, the participation-wide commitment to setting targets, measuring and monitoring results, and managing people well.\r\nIn the manufacturing sector, the research had already been conducted in advanced economies, such as the unify States, the united Kingdom, and Japan, and develop economies like China, India, and Brazil. The quality of management, as captured by this study, correlates well with firm and attention productivity. The results of our research were published in the Institute’s Working Paper 12, Management Matters. We found that the Canadian manufacturing sector is among the surpass managed in the world. Our production management teams are leaders in implementing specific techniques in the area of tap Manufacturing.\r\nThey are solid performers in effecting broad(a) per formance management, though with room for improvement. But, while they match management teams in other leading economies in people management, Canadian firms trail US practices significantly. Our results also indicated that some of the separate inconsistents that drive †or at least are correlated with †better management are education, ownership, and winning global strategies. In Ontario, our results indicated that the quality of manufacturing management is higher here than in the other regions of Canada, and that the province’s results are within statistical range of US results overall.\r\nNevertheless, against the fourteen US peer states we have identified, Ontario at a lower place performs, peculiar(prenominal)ly in the area of people management †the go forthingness of managers to keep and promote high performers and to deal like a shot with miserable performers. In this Working Paper, we but extend this management research into another important assiduity in our economy: our retail businesses. In the summer while of 2009, a team of analysts at the Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity interviewed senior managers at 661 retail outlets in total †409 in Canada, 152 in the United States, and 100 in the United Kingdom.\r\nThe research was meagerly adapted to fit the retail sector, but still remains largely comparable with(predicate) to that in manufacturing in approaches to measuring and monitoring operations performance, setting and achieving performance targets, and managing people. management matters in retail The results for Canada are encouraging. The overall results indicate that we are among the leaders in retail management, scoring statistically no differently than the United States. Results vary crosswise the three sub-indexes that make up the overall measure.\r\nIn operations management, we stand statistically slowly the United States, but ahead of the United Kingdom. In performance management, we tie with the United States for the elevation spot and stay statistically ahead of the United Kingdom. In people management, though our score is lower than the US result, it is not statistically different, and we stand statistically ahead of the UK score here as well. near of the depict variables that are correlated with better management in manufacturing are also important in retail, such as education and global reach. More exceedingly educated management teams out perform other retail managers.\r\nRetailers who have successfully spread out beyond their b determines are more than better managed than those who are still domestic competitors only. We also found that firm size and scale are important in explaining better management †larger retail firms are better managed. Our results indicate that quality of retail management in Ontario is not statistically different from that in the ministration of Canada. Ontario piles statistically worse than our fourteen peer states group ; however, unlike our manufacturers, the retailers’ disadvantage is strongest in stock operations and not statistically significant in performance and people management.\r\nIn summary, this Working Paper reinforces our conclusion that management capabilities are important endorsers to provincial and national prosperity. And our Canadian retail management is among the best. Ontario, however, while being no different than the rest of Canada, trails the US peers significantly. Overall, our retail businesses have significant opportunities to improve. 9 10 convey for competitiveness & prosperity The implications for Ontario and Canada are overhear: If we emergency an economy create on innovation, we have to implicate managerial education in our policy discipline. Developing our cientific and technical skills is important to our prosperity †but not building the capabilities of our managers is an oversight that holds back our prosperity. ¦ Consistent with the rec ommendations of the Competition Policy occlusion up on Panel, chaired by Red Wilson in 2008, and our own research, we need to encourage an openness to foreign investment in our industries. This Working Paper shows how such investments attract best management practices and performance in our economy. ¦ At the comparable time, we need to encourage the global aspirations of our successful companies. In turn, global expansion will drive he development of stronger management in Ontario and Canadian firms. ¦ management matters in retail 11 Strong management delivers prosperity C its full prosperity potential. copulation to the United States, the economy most like to ours and our largest trading partner, we have a growing prosperity gap. Canada’s lag in GDP per capita grew from $2,600 in 1981 to $8,700 in 2008. 1 This growing gap reflects a bereavement to reach our full economic potential. It way that our extension has not created as lots economic value as possible fro m the human, natural, and physical resources endowed to us. nada is not achieving A key component of ratiocination our prosperity gap is for Canada to broaden its approach to innovation. Strong management practices are a critical contributor to more innovation. So we need stronger commitment to strengthening the capabilities of our business managers to implement best practices. Following on our work in manufacturing, in this Working Paper, we extend our exploration of management capabilities in Canada and Ontario to the retail sector. 1 2007 Canadian dollars; US dollars converted at 2007 purchasing Power Parity. 12 The retail sector is full of innovation.\r\nOne classic example lies in the success of Walmart and its pioneering introduction of â€Å"cross-docking” at its distribution centres. This revolutionary arrangement enabled Walmart to achieve excellent productivity and customer reactivity without the usual inventory and feedling comprise attached. By enabling its goods to be continuously delivered to its warehouses, then instantaneously selected, repackaged and transferred to their break ins, Walmart has been able to streamline its inventory pipeline by crossing its goods from one loading dock to another without its goods ever spending valuable time and spot in the arehouse. 2 Through effective management and innovation, Walmart was able to transform itself from a small respite retailer to the largest and most profitable retailer in the world today. Other examples of innovation in retail include big box retailers with a foc utilize, but very expansive product selection, and Carrefour, which ushered in the archetype of combining supermarket and department gillyflower into one roof, cognize today as a â€Å"hypermarket. ” It should be noted that these examples and other specific ones in this Working Paper are from business literature and in no way indicate that they were mong the companies we interviewed in our research. Such in formation is confidential. The benefits of modify management practices also apply in many other sectors. For example, a Washington smirch article signalizes a study conducted in hospitals in the United States, where they implemented a simple management tool, a â€Å"surgical checklist” in surgical procedures. The â€Å"low-cost, low tech invention” led to a lessening of in-patient deaths by more 2G. be for competitiveness & prosperity than 40 share and a overhaul in the rate of serious complications of 36 share. The article captures the essence of this ool very well: â€Å"The human mind can’t remember everything, so it’s best to focus on the complicated challenges and countenance the simple reminders to a cheat sheet. ”3 Management tools such as the surgical checklist, the equivalent of the retail submit’s â€Å" periodic to-do list,” are small changes that can substantially decrease the rate of depopulate in a busine ss †be it of time, resources, or lost r flushue because of product shortages. In this Working Paper, we focus on management capabilities in the retail sector. We delineate â€Å"retail” as those firms act in the selling of consumer goods to the public, ranging from utomotive and furniture investment firms to pharmacies, garb, and grocery blood lines. We first briefly refreshen the importance of management natural endowment for innovation and prosperity. 4 We then set out key findings from research we have recently conducted into the slip awayical state of management capabilities in Canada’s and Ontario’s retail sector, and how retail fares against the manufacturing sector in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Management talent is important in the Innovation System As we have discussed in front reports,5 innovation is a result of the ongoing interaction of three elements supply, contain, and financing of innovation †in an Inno vation System. These elements are driven by competitive pressure and broad support (Exhibit 1). Each of the elements is critical for success, but all three need to work together in balance. The supply of innovation includes the factors utilise to increasing the stock of innovation, including highly qualified personnel, businesses’ facilities, resources, and activities. The demand for innovation is the combination of customer insistence on new products and process breakthroughs and corporate demand for innovation within a firm.\r\nThe financing of innovation is an important bridge between demand and supply since, even if these two factors are in balance, significant funding is emblematicly mandatory to commercialize new ideas and scientific breakthroughs. Innovation requires pressure and support in each of these areas. Strong management is important in each element of the Innovation System. The management function includes goal setting, organization building, resource alloca tion, and monitoring of results. It also includes actions in enterprise finance, sales and promotion, production and delivery, and people evelopment (Exhibit 2). Hence, in building an innovative firm or an innovative economy, management talent matters. Senior managers in successful companies develop strategies where innovation is a critical component. Innovation strategies typically attach to one of two paths: • Innovation to r put forward be. Cost reductions can be completed in two slipway. †First, improved management and operate processes can stretchiness the producer’s costs. For example, harlequin indomitable that producing romance novels consistently with the number of pages that coincided with one sheet on the printing press would educe its printing costs, measuringize shipping requirements, and simplify presentment for the retailer. Harlequin also determined that mail order distribution would cut costs and build Stalk, P. Evans, and L. Shulman, 199 2, â€Å"Competing on capabilities: The new rules of corporate strategy,” Harvard Business Review, Mar/Apr, 1992, p. 58, addressable online: http://my. execpc. com/~jpurtell/HBR-CompetingonCapabilities. pdf Washington Post, January 15, 2009, â€Å"Surgery checklist lowers death rate”, on tap(predicate) online: http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/14/AR2009011402831. tml 4 For a more extensive discussion see Roger Martin and James Milway, Strengthening management for prosperity, Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity, 2007, available online: http://www. competeprosper. ca/images/uploads/ManagementPaper_May07. pdf 5Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity, Working Paper 12, Management matters, March 2009. 3 13 management matters in retail repeat purchase behaviour among loyal customers. The lower run costs could be passed on as lower prices for consumers. But true innovation means that the producer captures some of the value a dded by not reducing prices at the equal rate s costs. â€Second, innovation can stretch costs for retailers or other parts of the distribution channel. McCain’s became one of Canada’s global leaders by eliminating the need for restaurants and food service operations to profane whole potatoes and peel them. Instead, they could buy fully prepared frozen fries from McCain’s and simply finish off the frying. • Innovation to enhance customer experience. Four Seasons, the world’s leading lavishness hotel chain, has succeeded by drearyly studying what its guests wanted and by improving the customer experience. Cirque de Soleil, the world’s leading ircus conjunction, recognized the customers’ experience of circuses left much to be desired and reinvented the circus world to witch them. Such innovations draw as much on management capabilities †competitive analytic thinking, customer research and segmentations, cost analysis â⠂¬ as they do on technical capabilities. Indeed, our research into high technology firms in Canada shows that, as these firms succeed and mature, the importance of technical skills at the egest of the organization is matched by the importance of other skills, including management capability. 6 And below the CEO level, evidence is attach hat the economy is requiring greater numbers of sophisticated c at one timeptual thinkers and those with the strong analytic and people skills call for to lead innovation and upgrading. 7 Exhibit 1 Innovation strategy has three components Exhibit 1Pressure and embody drive all three elements of the Innovation System The Innovation System PRESSURE PRESSURE Strong Management reference: Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity. 6 7 motive for Innovation uphold Financing of Innovation set up Supply of Innovation The Strategic Counsel, â€Å"Assessing the Experience of Successful Innovative Firms in Ontario,” 2004, p. 1, available on line: http://www. competeprosper. ca/images/uploads/InnovationInterviewStudyRep. pdf Ibid, p. 41 14 institute for competitiveness & prosperity Canada lacks sufficient sophisticated management capabilities An important opportunity for improving Canada’s innovation and productivity performance is to strengthen management talent in our economy. In our research over the years, we have consistently found that our managers principally have lower educational attainment than their US counterparts, and CEOs of our largest corporations are less likely to have formal business education at the graduate level. Half of US managers have a bachelor’s tier or above compared to just over a third of Canadian managers (Exhibit 3). Further, innovative, hightech firms report disadvantages in entree to management talent as a key constraint. 9 A key part of Canada’s prosperity under(a) performance is attributable to its lack of management talent. Management skills are a critica l complement to science and engineering skills in creating a high quality supply of innovation, driving sophisticated demand for innovation, and putting in place the required quantity and quality of financing to make the Innovation System work effectively.\r\nExhibit 2 Managers play an important part in creating Pressure and Support in all elements of the Innovation System The Innovation System PRESSURE PRESSURE Strong Management Source: Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity. 8Institute 9R. Demand for Innovation SUPPORT Financing of Innovation SUPPORT Supply of Innovation for Competitiveness & Prosperity, Working Paper 6, Reinventing innovation and commercialization policy in Ontario, October 2004, p. 40 Martin and J. Milway, Strengthening management for prosperity, p. 11 15 management matters in retail Management innovation delivers higher productivity Contemporary research a good deal focuses n two measures of productivity: • output per unit of labour input, s uch as hours worked or employment; and • total factor productivity (TFP), which measures the extent to which tangible economic output is higher than expectant and labour employment data would imply. Many researchers and policy makers believe that productivity changes are intimately linked to changes in technology in the traditional sense; that is, productivity growth results from improvements in machinery, equipment, or techniques of production. Thus, the key to higher productivity is technological advances, as evidenced in higher R&D expenditures or more patents.\r\nprof Michelle Alexopoulos of the University of Toronto presents an alternative, though less intuitive, view. 10 She argues that anything that improves producers’ ability to transform inputs into final goods and services deserves the deed of conveyance â€Å"technology. ” For her, productivity is indeed influenced by the traditionally understood types of technology †such as machinery and new products †that she calls â€Å"tangible. ” But productivity is also influenced by â€Å"intangible” technology †such as management techniques and production processes. She posits that it is important to distinguish between these wo types of technologies, since they affect the types of policies governments may want to put in place. It is generally agreed among management experts that changes in intangibles †such as corporate work rules, team bodily structures, communication channels, morale, or managerial leaders †raise productivity and workforce competency. While this is not a controversial statement, quantifying the effect of improvement in management techniques at the aggregate level is passing difficult because of measurement issues. Professor Alexopoulos’ measure tracks the development and diffusion f management techniques through a count of Library of Congress management criminal record acts, supplemented with counts of relevan t academic journal articles. She has demonstrated that changes in management techniques are an important factor in US productivity growth. 11 With the index of management book publications serving as a deputy for diffusion, her regression analyses reveal that available management books are positively associated with growth in an economy’s TFP and GDP. In particular, following the introduction of a new management technique that causes a 10 percent increase in new management books, GDP and TFP\r\nExhibit 3 Canadian managers are less well educated than their US counterparts Managers’ educational attainment, just 2005â€2007 12% 18% Advanced degree 35% Bachelor’s degree 26% Some post secondary 18% High nurture 23% 39% 19% 7% Canada 3% United States Less than high school Source: Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity analysis establish on Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, and U. S. delegacy of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey 10M. Alexo poulos and T. Tombe, â€Å"Management Matters,” forth overture working paper, University of Toronto. 11Ibid. 16 institute for competitiveness & prosperity row at statistically significantly higher rates than add up for roughly six years. In fact, the impulse response estimates suggest that by year five, GDP would be 2. 1 percent higher and TFP would be 1. 4 percent higher in an economy with innovation in management techniques (Exhibit 4). A 2 percent increase in our GDP per capita would increase average liquid income per family by $1,500 in Canada and Ontario. 12 Alexopoulos does not depone that the research definitively leads to this direct impact †but it does suggest that improved management has a significant effect on a region’s or nation’s prosperity.\r\nShe concludes that Canadian managers, have admission fee to the same resources as our American neighbours, but many lack the expertise to employ the most productive management innovations. Incr easing the number of graduates from economics, business, or management broadcasts and raising funding for research in business management and related fields may financial aid alleviate this deficiency. This kind of â€Å"business R&D” is to management what science is to engineering, and deserves more attention from the government. It is intuitively likely that stronger management capabilities lead to more innovation and higher rosperity. But the impact of management capabilities on regional prosperity has not been well studied. Our research and that of others indicate that management matters. The development of improved management techniques, their diffusion, and their implementation by capable managers lead to higher prosperity. Exhibit 4 New management techniques are associated with increases in productivity and prosperity Effect on Gross Domestic Product and Total Factor Productivity Response to a 10% increase in management publications Percentage increase 2. 5 % Gro ss Domestic Product 2. 0 1. 5 Total Factor Productivity . 0 0. 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years following unexpected increase in management publications Source: M. Alexopoulos and T. Tombe, â€Å"Management Matters,” forthcoming working paper, University of Toronto. 12Calculation based on a 2 percent increase in the Canadian 2008 income per capita, personal disposable income as a dowry of GDP, and average household size. 6 management matters in retail 17 Management practices can be measured C learly, good management is an important factor in firm innovation and productivity and, to the extent that a region’s firms are well managed, overall prosperity will be higher.\r\nBut economists and management researchers have paid pocket-sized attention to measuring effective management practices and their impact on firm productivity. A major stumbling shut down has been the lack of useful, consistent measurements of the quality of management across firms and countries. While researchers recognize the importance of effective management, they typically refer to it as an empirically unobservable variable in their research to account for the differences in productivity across firms within the same country and manufacture. International research evaluates management practices\r\nTo fill this research gap, professors gouge Bloom, John wagon train Reenen, and Raffaela Sadun developed a methodology to measure management practices first within a manufacturing operation,13 and now have expanded this methodology to include 13 See, for example, N. Bloom and J. Van Reenen, â€Å"Measuring and Explaining Management Practices Across Firms and Countries,” NBER Working Paper No. 12216 and N. Bloom, J. Van Reenen, â€Å"Why do Management Practices Differ across Firms and Countries? ” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 203â€244. 18 institute for competitiveness & prosperity the retail sector as well as forthcoming esearch on management of sc hools and hospitals. They have applied this methodology since 2004 and have interviewed over 7,000 firms in eighteen countries,14 including developed economies, such as the United States, Germany, and Japan, and developing economies like China, India, and Brazil. The Institute collaborated closely with Professor Bloom to interview Canadian manufacturing firms through the summer of 2008. In 2009, the Institute further collaborated to extend the methodology to the retail sector, for the first time in a large-scale confound, including Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Bloom, Van Reenen, and Sadun’s ethod to measure management practices in the firm is based on an interview military rating tool that scores firms on a scale of 1 to 5, indicating from worst practice to best practice across eighteen management practices, developed primarily by McKinsey & Company, a leading international management consulting firm. The management practices cover three distinct, but related areas of management: • Adopting effective operations management approaches. How well have firms implemented retail management systems that are generally regarded by academics and consultants as best practice? â€Å" feed sell” is a slightly recent concept erived from the original â€Å" slant Manufacturing,” which is generally regarded as the most effective management system. found on the production methods developed by Toyota, but applicable beyond the automotive (and manufacturing) industry, arguing achieves highly efficient operations through a relentless drive to reduce waste of time and resources. It is characterized by an ethos of 14For continuous improvement, backed by close bring in of the operation to identify capers and improvement opportunities. • • Managing targets effectively. Do firms’ management teams set stretch yet realistic targets, monitor performance against these targets, and ake corrective action when nec essary? Effective management in this area means that companies are finding the right balance of targets to aspire to for upper limit achievable performance. Setting targets too low means under performance; setting them too high will discourage improvements by workers and managers. Effective management also means determining how to measure performance and to follow through with actions when targets are not met. Managing people well. be companies promoting and rewarding employees based on performance, and systematically trying to hire and keep their best employees? The banality that people are a firm’s most mportant asset is true. Skilled workers and effective people management together are an important element of productivity in firms and across the economy. Well managed firms are able to attract and retain their top talent through effective reward and incentive programs. They also deal effectively with problem performers. Professor Bloom and his team designed the research process correspond to rigorous academic research standards. Our analysts, who were business and economics students, were trained to conduct the interviews consistent with analysts in other countries. We randomly selected retail locations for elephone interviews from a comprehensive industry list of firms categorized by Standard industrial Classification (SIC) retail codes. 15 The analysts conducted telephone interviews that lasted an average of fifty-seven minutes with the most senior stock certificate managers available and occasionally district managers. Through a series of structured, but open-ended questions, the analysts scored each company on a scale of 1 to 5, across eighteen factors. These results generated scores on each of the three factors described above, which in turn generated an overall score for the quality of management at the operation.\r\nThe structure of the retail interview followed the manufacturing one, in which sixteen out of the eighteen topics were compar able between the two sectors. Analysts also â€Å" double over scored” four 5ths of the interviews. That is, while one analyst conducted the interview, another, who was not taking part in the interview, listened and independently scored the company. Subsequent comparisons of the scores showed a high degree of consistency between analysts. We conducted interviews from June to August 2009 from a central location in Toronto. To ensure the comparability of the retail scores with the previous year’s anufacturing scores, our analysts were trained using the same methodology, and two analysts from the previous year’s manufacturing project returned to supervise and double-score the interviews. Thus we conclude that, as much as possible, the retail interviews were scored in the same way as those in the manufacturing sector, and therefore are comparable to the rest of the management sample. Further, the distribution of completed interviews across Canada and the United Stat es matches the distribution of actual retail locations. more information on the research methodology, see Professor Nick Bloom’s website: http://www. tanford. edu/~nbloom/index_files/Page371. htm on the lambast & Bradstreet database, using SIC codes 50â€57 and 59. For more information, see http://www. dnb. ca/ 15Based 19 management matters in retail listing Retailing is best practice operating strategy inclination of an orbit Retailing is an example of a best practice operating strategy that management needs to adopt to maximize the efficiency of the retail operation process. including those in insurance policy companies, hospitals, airline maintenance organizations, government agencies, retail industries, and many others. 16 In the retail sector, the same operate approach as now developed to improve operations flows; these principles are known as execute Retailing. What is disceptation Retailing? How does melt Retailing work? Business success lies in effective management. This is especially critical today, as retailers continue to face the increasing challenge of competing against dropping prices a pertinaciousside rising operating and labour costs. Now, more than ever, retailers are turning toward adopting a more escape approach in their management operations to improve profitability. At the core of Lean Retailing is a dedication to the elimination of waste. mistakable to the manufacturing sector, the ajor types of waste targeted by the Lean approach include excess inventory, product defects, unnecessary motion, under use employees, and wait times. Managers can now apply similar tools and principles to identify these forms of waste to improve their operations efficiency. These Lean techniques include: But what is Lean Retailing? Lean Retailing refers to the operating strategy that seeks to maximize efficiency by identifying and eliminating waste. It focuses on simplifying the work process to put across wasted effort, time, materials , and motion. By adopting a Lean approach, managers who employ these tools and principles are able to educe non-value adding activities, detect and stop problems early, and improve overall operating flow. • • Using â€Å" protract” to drive replenishment. Ensuring that the supply of goods is pulled by actual demand of customers as opposed to forecast or estimated demand so that inventory levels are kept low and space is conserved • Removing bottlenecks through the supply chain. Eliminating inefficiencies to bowdlerise delivery times, lower transportation costs and defects, and improve product flow and operational performance • Today, the Lean approach has evolved from the manufacturing industry to apply to operations of all kinds, 16S.\r\nTo win in this increasingly competitive environment, retailers need to adopt a relentless focus on delivering value cost effectively. For, despite steadily falling prices, store operating costs are trending up becau se of more expensive operating overheads and labour costs as well as higher investments in break fittings to match increasing trends to improve the customer experience. 17 Retailers must pursue a Lean perspective in their core operations, including best practices in operations management, performance management, and people management. (See A soak up to best practices in Lean Retailing. ) Doing so will produce a more fficient cost structure, more productive workers, less waste, lower effort, and shorter wait times †all of which generate significant improvements in store profitability and customer satisfaction. Today, more and more businesses are focusing on streamlining their key operations to reduce unnecessary processes and waste and to improve customer experience. Lean Retailing is a best practice that, once implemented, can improve productivity and contribute to higher overall economic performance. Our research allows us to measure the quality of retail management through the lens of Lean Retailing †and to provide guidance for retailers in dentifying and implementing Lean Retailing best practices. Eliminating wasted effort, time, materials, and motion. Identifying the core value of operations by eliminating excess motion, time, and materials used in the process flow to reduce and sustain extra work, problems and wait times Where did Lean Retailing originate? Pioneered by Toyota Motor Corporation, the concept of Lean was conceived as a set of tools and methods to eradicate waste and inefficiency in their manufacturing system, famously known now as the Toyota Production System (TPS). This revolutionizing manufacturing strategy fuelled Toyota’s rise from a ash-strapped company to becoming one of the most successful automobile manufacturers in the world. Simplifying work design. Organizing case-by-case work processes to be more feasible and dirigible so that these efforts have clear start and finish points Why is Lean Retailing important? Corbett, â€Å"beyond Manufacturing: The evolution of Lean production,” McKinsey Quarterly, 2007, 3, pp. 94-96. Voisin, â€Å"The ‘Industrial revolution’ of atomic number 63an retailers in underway,” McKinsey Quarterly, 2004, available online at: http://www. mckinsey. com/practices/retail/knowledge/index_full. asp? startval=20&sort=title 17Jean-Baptiste 0 institute for competitiveness & prosperity A guide to best practices in Lean Retailing For each topic in the study, we define the best practice and provide an example worn-out from the 661 retail interviews conducted across North America and Europe operations management Rationale for Lean retailing techniques Adoption of Lean practices store operations Has the store implemented all the major Lean store operations practices? For example, does the manager have a standard to-do list to follow daily? Is there an automated inventory control system determined by the pull of demand? Is the backroom org anized systematically?\r\n exercise of best practice: A Canadian bookstall has a point-of-sale system that automatically orders an item as soon as it is sold. The managers and employees check off every item on their set to-do list every morning. The manager has a â€Å"store clock,” where she plans for what is retrieveing in the store every hour of the day. Some inventory is kept, and what is on hand in the backroom is organized by aisle with bin codes, keeping the backroom clutter-free. scheduling Has the store implemented all major Lean scheduling practices? Is the scheduling do automatically, based on store traffic and minutes data?\r\nAre there defined roles within the module? Example of best practice: schedule at a US supermarket is based on a computer system that is linked to its sales results system. The computer system bases the schedule on legal proceeding per hour and allocates more labour to peak hours. Roles in the store are clearly defined, and employees rarely have to respond to unexpected traffic increases. What was the reasoning rotter the adoption of any or all Lean Retailing techniques? Were managers implementing changes because all their competitors were doing it? Did managers believe it would merely reduce costs and thus ecided to make the switch? Or did Lean fit the businesses’ goals, which often include increasing quality, reducing waste, and reducing injuries while increasing lettuce? Example of best practice: A UK persuasiveness apparel store introduced techniques to improve customer service, raise product availability, decrease waste, and increase efficiency and productivity. surgery problem documentation If an operational/procedural problem in the store occurs, what happens? Do managers wait for problems to happen to address them or do they search for ways of improving processes and avoiding potentially costly product shortages or mistakes?\r\nIs there a specific way that take a crap floor workers, who are e xecuting most of the tasks, can suggest process improvements? Example of best practice: A UK supermarket uses a checklist system for checking the store every hour. Managers document all issues and have weekly business strategy meetings to discuss them and identify solutions. Action plans encompass targeted completion dates and everything is reported to corporate headquarters. There is a standard system whereby employees can suggest improvements, and managers check up on article them weekly with potential rewards for the employee whose suggestion gets implemented. management matters in retail atters Operations performance tracking What types of chance on Performance Indicators (KPIs) are the managers tracking? For example, do managers only track sales per day or does the set of KPIs include a comprehensive list of all productivity factors, such as average deed value and conversion rates? And are these KPIs available for all to see, or is it only the senior managers who are privy to this information? Example of best practice: A Canadian bookstore manager tracks all major performance indicators daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. Sales are track by shift, and if targets are not being met, the manager follows up mmediately with the sales staff to improve performance. alone information is posted for employees to see and modifyd as new data become available. Operations performance critical review Does a manager review KPIs with other managers and staff? Is there a meeting to review them? Who is mixed in these meetings? Who gets to see the results of this review? What are the typical next steps after a meeting? Example of best practice: A computer computer hardware store in Canada has weekly management meetings to review the basic KPIs, and routinely invites floor staff to attend as well. Every meeting, they create a follow up plan with five to six main oints they have to focus on in the coming week with specific timelines and accountability. Results are tr acked daily and shared with employees in small team huddles and storewide meetings double a week. The managers keep a scorecard to sustain track how they are doing. a 21 Operations performance dialogue Here managers are asked to describe a KPI meeting. Is there a set structure to the meeting; for example, a set agenda used every week? If KPI data are undeniable to discuss specific issues, are the data evermore available? Do discussions lead to the root cause of problems? Example of best practice: The manager at an American eneral merchandise store has a set agenda for the meetings (part of it from corporate, part of it open to managers’ discretion), which is distributed ahead of time. any tortuous are expected to have reviewed it and to come prepared for discussion. Problems are identified and conversations are only finished when the root cause is found. The manager often uses root cause analysis tools such as fishbone diagrams and the 5Ys. a All items are documented and followed up on. Consequence management How do managers deal with a business unit that is under performing? What are the consequences for the under performing unit?\r\nAre there parts of the business that attend to fail repeatedly to carry out agreed actions? Example of best practice: A general merchandise store in Canada has a computerized system where follow-up plans are logged. Outstanding items are flagged (red, yellow, or green). In-store issues have a â€Å"sundown rule,” where problems need to be fixed by sundown. External issues require progress reports, and status is often reviewed until the item is no longer red-flagged. 5Ys is a management technique used to solve problems by communicate â€Å"why” five times. By the time the fifth why is asked, the root cause of the problem has already been found. 2 institute for competitiveness & prosperity Performance management Types of goals What types of goals are set for the company? Are there specific goals for the store? Are there any non-financial goals? Example of best practice: A hardware store in Canada has a range of financial and operational goals in place, and also has specific non-financial goals for community involvement (charitable donations/fundraising) and environmental targets. The manager was concerned with â€Å"making money” but snarl that supporting their community was just as important. interconnection of goals Is there a clear motivation behind the goals? For instance, oes the company clearly communicate goals, such as â€Å"we want to be the leader in the industry” or â€Å"we want to grow by 4 percent in the next two years”? How are the goals cascaded down to the single workers? For example, are workers alive(predicate) of how their work fits within the larger framework of the company? Example of best practice: The motivation behind a US general merchandise store’s goals is to create shareholder value and deliver customer satisfaction. Corporate headquarters divides goals by region, division, and store. The manager then further divides those goals by department and individual associates, so that all ave personal targets linked to the store’s overall goal. Company goals are communicated through storewide meetings and newsletters. Time horizon What is the time scale of the targets? Do managers focus more on short-term or long-term goals? Do the short-term goals form a â€Å" staircase” to the long-term goals? Example of best practice: A Canadian department store has daily, weekly, quarterly, annual, three- and five-year goals and ten-year strategic goals. The goals are all linked in a staircase; if the store meets all the short-term goals, they will inevitably meet the long-term goals. Setting stretch goals How tough are the goals?\r\nDo managers feel pushed by them? Are any goals obviously too soft or too hard? In other words, are there goals that are always met and some that are never met? Do all d epartments have the same level of difficulty in the targets or do some get off subdued? Example of best practice: A UK clothing store has rigorous goals for all departments, based on a specific store growth plan. The manager feels the targets are very tough, but attainable. She meets them between 75 to 80 percent of the time. Clarity of goals Do all employees in the store know what their personal targets are? Does anyone complain that the targets are too omplex †that is, not that they are too stretching, but that they are difficult to clear? Is performance between teams or shifts openly compared to others? Example of best practice: A Canadian bookstore manager sets clear individual targets for her employees and keeps them accountable to them during weekly huddles. She posts performance in the break room and employees are encouraged to compare individual performance, as the manager believes this leads to friendly competition. Instilling a talent outlook Do senior managers dis cuss attracting and developing quick people? Do managers get any rewards for the talent ool they create? Are managers held accountable for creating a talent pool? Example of best practice: Managers at an American department store participate in university/college job fairs, and actively seek talented people to join the company. The company has a â€Å"human capital report,” and the number and quality of the people a manager hired are important in his approximation and affect (positively or negatively) his bonus at the end of the year. management matters in retail 23 state management Promoting high performers If a worker is exceptionally good, can he or she be promoted on a fast track?\r\nAre top performers routinely identified and developed? Is length of service unduly important in promotions? Rewarding top performers How does the appraisal system work? How does the bonus system work? Are there non-financial rewards? How do these systems compare to the competitors’ systems? Example of best practice: An American hardware store holds appraisal meetings every six months †one full appraisal meeting and one update meeting. There is a bonus for both shop floor employees and managers, based on a review of personal performance. For the shop floor employees, there is a reward system where employees et â€Å"stars” in a staircase structure for outstanding performance. For each set number of â€Å"stars,” there is a financial reward. When employees reach the highest level, they get a bribe. There are also gift cards/movie tickets and other financial rewards for good customer service performance. Addressing poor performance If a worker is continuously under performing, what is the course of action? Is there a set procedure that is followed? How long would under performance be tolerated? Example of best practice: A US department store has a performance improvement plan, whereby managers meet with poor performers, identify their improvem ent pportunities, develop a plan, and give them tools to make them work more effectively. Once under performance is identified, weekly meetings are set up to update the status. The manager tries to retrain and/ or move the employee to other departments, but under performance is only tolerated for a maximum of three months. Example of best practice: An American grocery store has a formal career path plan for all employees and a succession plan for managers. Promotions are based solely on performance, and tenure does not play a role. The manager uses regular performance appraisals to identify op performers and look for â€Å"diamonds in the rough. ” The company has a mentoring program that trains the best to be future managers, and encourages workers to take courses away(p) the store. Attracting high performers Does the company offer a distinctive work environment that is attractive to top talent? Example of best practice: An American hardware store offers competitive wages, strong performance incentives, and clear career paths. The managers believe it is important to get employees involved in the decision-making process to make them feel like a valued part of the company. Retaining high performers\r\nWhat special practices are in place to retain top performers who want to leave the company? Example of best practice: A hardware store manager in Canada keeps an eye on the top employees and, if they seem unhappy or are thinking to the highest degree leaving, senior management will meet with them to discuss their career. For a top performer, the manager would adjust hours, increase pay, and offer more responsibility. The manager mentioned an example where he helped the employee’s mother move to their town so they could live closer together and the employee would stay with the company. 24 institute for competitiveness & prosperity\r\n'