Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Advanced Nursing Role Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Advanced Nursing Role - examine Exampleelly (2012) front line managers are trustworthy for patient pity delivery, planning and monitoring resources, maintaining codes and standards and development and evaluating staff. Middle-level managers facilitate cooperating in the organization by serving as a link among front line and upper-level managers. Upper-level managers are specialized in forethought and administration of the health care organization by establishing goals and strategizing plans (p. 401).I agree that nurse managers and nurse executives have supervisory tasks in an organization. still though individuals sometimes regard a nurse administrator and nurse manager as unmatchable administration role, it should be noted that these two roles differ in responsibility and payment. Nurse Managers are responsible for a single unit within a medical facility, while a nurse administrator is responsible for more than one unit all units in a medical facility. Additionally, nurse ma nagers string up under the category of middle management, while nurse administrators fall under executive level management (Crowther, 2008).In regard to educational level nevertheless, they can possess a graduate degree as an added advantage while nurse administrators require a graduate degree as well as clinical experience. Nurse Managers work directly with nurses who offer primary care to patients, giving guidance on the appropriate medical care, whereas nurse administrators work with middle-level managers and other senior staff, thereby providing indirect care to patients (Parker & Smith,

Monday, April 29, 2019

The Business Perspective of the Apple Company Term Paper

The seam Perspective of the orchard apple tree Company - Term Paper ExampleThe brand value of the follow is partial in todays world. Effective use of technology provides the company with brand recognition, enabling it to condense out among its competitors. The collaborative work of its employees has paved the way for the success of the company, which follows a collaborative work culture. orchard apple tree Inc. is recognized as the biggest start-up in the world, formed by the efficient hands of Steve Jobs. There are rat team meetings in each department in order to discuss the current line of descent scenario, and the company values and encourages the participation of its team members in the decision-making processes. apple has a reputation of valuing individuality and excellence that abet in the companys decision making (Apple Inc, 2012). Products/services and geographic scope Formerly named Apple Computer Inc., the company is an American multinational corporation which speci alizes in the design and sale of electronic goods and high-technology in the flesh(predicate) computers, along with computer software. The best-known products of the company are the Macintosh series of computers and the iPhone. In 2007, the company shifted from oblation only computers towards making and selling consumer electronics. In terms of market capitalization, it is the largest public limited company. The company manages its business on a geographic basis, with five operating ingredients, in America, Japan, Europe, and some other regions. The operating segment offers similar hardware as well as software products (Datamonitor, 20093). Competitors Apple Inc operates its business in quaternary industries, the main one of which is personal computers. Apart from this, the company produces software and consumer electronics. In the personal computer industry, Apples main competitors are IBM, Hewlett Packard, Dell Inc. etc. In the consumer electronics industry, the main market co mpetitor is Samsung, which has a similar type of product on the market Apple has also been facing competition in developing countries. Apples direct competitors are Google, Microsoft, and RIMM (Research in Motion Limited).

Sunday, April 28, 2019

GRENDEL BY JOHN GARDNER Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

GRENDEL BY JOHN GARDNER - Essay ExampleInGrendel,however, he is an intelligent and temperamental monster, opened of rational thought as well as irrational outbursts of emotion. The novel follows Grendel through three stages of his life. The beginning stage is his childhood, which he spends innocently exploring his confined world, untroubled by the outside universe or philosophic questions.The second step, which decisively makes Grendel an adult, occurs when the bull attacks him, prompting him to realize that the world is essentially chaotic, following no practice session and governed by no discernible reason. The third and final stage of Grendels life encompasses his fatal dispute with Beowulf and the weeks leading up to that battle.In this reading, Gardner establishes Grendel as a dark, but poetic spectator to mans pretensions to civilization (Merrill 164). For instance, Grendel has observed Hrothgars rise to power, so he offers a sardonic account of how rove bands evolved into savage tribes. Grendel is also contemptuous of the manufacturing businesss influence on Hrothgars men, and he asks Did they execution each other more gently because in the woods sweet songbirds sang? (Gardner 62). This is where he emphasizes the monstrous allure of art, that is, he exposes the irrepressible human tendency to substitute unpleasant realities with consolatory myths (Merrill 165). The Shaper, for example, tells the Danes stories of their heritage so that the Danes learn to see themselves within a certain moral context, as inheritors of a proud usage and consequently feel a need to adhere to the strict moral and ethical code that the Shaper has established.This crystal clear vision of what they need to believe in to make their world a meaningful one comforts them. They feel safe in a world which offers a clear banknote and role assignment kings are kings, warriors are warriors and monsters are monsters. Unlike them, Grendel is not oblivious to the fact that what the y

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Investigate the Iconography in the Work of John Singleton Copley Term Paper

Investigate the Iconography in the Work of flush toilet Singleton Copley - Term Paper ExampleThe flesh is think to convey some messages to the viewers through its facial expression. The pictorial likeness of the face of the image is of design concern (LightPoseGuide, para.3). It could also be kept in some gallery to pass some nurture onto the future generations. As such, it is necessary that the artist design a portrait that has some facial expression. The image should be natural to enable the observer develop a logical eyesight towards the intended meaning. Iconography is implicated with the symbolic nature of the portraits or any other artistic images. It is the study of the themes expressed in ocular arts and their hidden meanings (Straten, 3). It involves identifying and providing a description of the content of a given portrait. This then leads to an interpretation of what the contents imply in relation to the subject of the cut back (Straten, 3). This paper presents an iconographic examination of Watson and the Shark, a piece of work by John Singleton Copley, the eighteenth and nineteenth century American artist who later moved to capital of the United Kingdom where he died. The symbolic nature of this and other works by the artist is examined. The artist is seen to have brought a significant impact on the nature of the American and British portraiture. John Singleton Copleys Background John Singleton Copley is an American painter born in capital of Massachusetts in 1938 of an Irish immigrant into the US (Olgas Gallery, para.1). At the age of ten, his father died and the mother, Mary Singleton Copley, was married to another man by the name Peter Pelham in the same year. The stepfather contributed significantly to the early education of Copley. He was a teacher as well as an engraver, and so Copley learned a lot when he worked at the stepfathers shop. While working there, he learned mixed skills involved in engraving and developed relations with v arious painters in Boston (Olgas Gallery, para.2). The stepfather also died within three years and Copley was forced to continue learning the art of engravings on his own. Copley began to paint portraits at the natural age of fifteen years. Even though these early works were seen to be immature with no proper facial expressions, the efforts of the artist could not be mistaken owing to his tender age (Olgas Gallery, para.3). The artist borrowed elements from works from America and Europe. He interacted with more artists from Europe and other split of the world that led to rapid development in his artistic skills. He was invited to various exhibitions in the colonial America and Canada, most of which he turned down. In 1766, Copley attended the exhibition of the Incorporated Society of Artists, where he gained fame among the public in England (Olgas Gallery, para.8). His first work presented at the exhibition impressed different citizenry and he was accepted into the society of ar tists in the country. The artist had further creative and innovative developments and moved to various counties with his photographic plate based in London. He developed portraits of important persons in the colonial New England. more or less of his works are kept in the National Gallery at Washington, D.C. Copley later died in his home in London in 1815 following a stroke (Olgas Gallery, para.21). Watson and the Shark, 1778 The works of Copley could be a regarded as an important milestone in the American portraiture. Ideally, the portraits

Friday, April 26, 2019

Children appear capable of using lexical information to resolve Essay

Children step up unfastened of using lexical information to resolve syntactic ambiguities, but their ability to use denotative information is questionable. Discuss - Essay Examplegely thought to have acquired the linguistic facts of their language, the focus of adult psycholinguistic research has been on how they process language as they hear or use it. On the some other hand, the focus of child language research has been on the documentation of childrens knowledge states at conglomerate points in development with very little emphasis on how they process their language. This appears to be an area needing march on investigation as, logically, children need also apply a meaningful analysis to their inputs in order to let on language. That is, acquisition necessarily implies that parser. This paper examines the aspect of difficulties and limitations encountered by children in using referential information time they deploy with ease lexical information to resolve syntactic ambigu ities.5 The main emphasis of the psycholinguistic research has been on comprehending as to how adults interpret language in real time. Several authors (Trueswell & Tanenhaus, 1991 Tanenhaus, Spivey-Knowlton, Eberhard & Sedivy, 1995Altmann & Steedman, 1988 Britt, 1994) have unveil ,within this domain of examination a complex and interactive language6 processing system capable of swift and almost instantaneous coordination of linguistic characteristics of the message with contextual or scene specific information. Trueswell et al (1999) investigated the moment by moment language learning process in children using a proficiency that involved recording eye movements, done deploying a head-mounted eye-tracking system to monitor eye movements, as participants responded to intercommunicate instructions. This research found that, systematic differences in how children and adults process spoken language Five Year Olds did not take into account relevant discourse/pragmatic principles when re solving temporary syntactic ambiguities, and showed little or no ability to revise initial parsing commitments. Adults showed sensitivity to these discourse constraints at the earliest

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Research Paper (The Impact of Web 2.0) Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

(The Impact of nett 2.0) - Research Paper role modelThis paper describes the different risks and advantages of Web 2.0 for todays businesses, identifying several case studies for companies that have tested Web 2.0 functionality to create a better business model and standing among competitors in similar industries.Web 2.0 is considered opus of the participatory Web (Decrem, 2006, p.2). It is called participatory because it creates opportunities for indwelling employees to enhance their communications systems or cease steady offer customer groups to be more interactive and post various comments or criticisms to help businesses understand their set markets at the marketing and advertising level. Web 2.0, with the assistance of information technology experts, allows current and pre-existing computer and software systems to become inter-linked with many social media sites and interactive forums to build more cost-effective and convenient linkages to the internal and external envi ronment.At the internal level, in terms of operations, businesses are searching for methods to reform their running(a) processes by improving process, performance by leading and controlling processes with a means to measure or improve business function (Santa, Ferrer, Bretherton and Hyland, 2009, p.156). At the internal level, businesses must be keenly aware of the costs associated with operational elements, all the way from production through the end product delivery, to ensure that they remain within compute and can stay competitive with a highly-evolutionary external business environment. From a critical perspective, Web 2.0 capabilities can improve many different operational components such as improved online advertising or even supply chain by transforming physical distribution to an Internet-based operation of logistics.Web 2.0 also allows business to recoup innovation at a time where

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Enlightenment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Enlightenment - Essay ExampleEnlightenment helps both the respective(prenominal) and the society. For example, suppose a terrorist got enlightenment during a particular period of time and as a leave of that he decides to stay away from terrorist activities. In this case, apart from the soulfulness, the society will also be benefitted. hear the cases of abortion or divorce. In both the cases, the individual and the society will be benefitted if a person decides to stay away from such activities. Even though, we are living in the most civilized instauration at present, I cannot say that we are living in an educated age. The clashes between cultures, religions, countries and communities are increase day by day. An enlightened world will never engage in such activities. An enlightened world will give equal opportunities to all. It will never measure human rights based on religious beliefs. It should be noted that thousands of people are being killed every day in Iraq, Afghanistan a nd Pakistan in the name of war on terror or clashes between communities. An enlightened civilization will never engage in such activities in the name of religion or belief. It should be noted that passe-partout Buddha after his enlightenment asked his disciples, not to kill any creature in this world. In other speech communication he has asked the public to stay away from killing humans, animals, birds, insects etc. Life is the most precious function in this world and it should be preserved at any cost. An enlightened world will never think of destroying any life forms.

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Reading Response Questions for How to Think Theologically from page 1 Assignment

Reading Response Questions for How to Think theologically from page 1 to 25 - Assignment ExampleAs such, all Christians find themselves theologians by seeking vivid comprehension of the religion after believing and having faith in it. Getting a unshakable grasp on this requires a little more understanding of theology as a thought and matters related to it.Q2. Theological reflection is perpetual conversation that involves the current Christian generation and their predecessors. As such, it is non something to be invented, personalized or even put to perfection by an individual. All that hotshot behind do is perform his best based on who and where he is in as far as Christian theology is concerned. Consequently, the church as an institution should give Christians the opportunity of thinking for themselves without necessarily channelling their thoughts towards one direction if the whole idea of Church theology is to materialize.Q3. Besides the usual view, the whole idea mess also be drawn from oral religious tradition. As portrayed in the grandmothers version, the whole concept laughingstock be vividly understood in a more or less similar manner to the renowned church theology concept (Stone and Duke, 2013). With this, it implies that several approaches can be taken to arrive at almost similar conclusions. However, it is not many people who are certain of the other option, the oral theological tradition which is equally of essence in the eventual understanding of theology.Q4. As we are made to understand, the whole idea of theology involves better understanding and trust in god, and that goes overhaul in hand with faith. Christian theology to be accurate cannot be deemed complete without the comprehension of Gods will, nature and that of His son Jesus Christ alongside the Holy Spirit.Q5. The belief in query can be in two significant ways as intellectual assent or as interpersonal relationships. Depending on ones perception and relationship with God, non e of the above can be considered superior to the other. This is

To what extent may several common mental disorders, as identified by Essay

To what extent may several general mental disorders, as identified by the 2007 ABS case Survey of Mental wellness and Wellbeing - Essay ExampleThis is because, it is clear that the thoughtless attitude that leaders of organisations adopt towards mental health has continuously compounded the effects of mental disorders, with stigma, dismissal from work, aloofness and ignorance being some of the commonest manifestations of this same attitude. Contrariwise, the essential to tamper the quest for per contriveance target with human dignity, corporate social responsibility and fairness compels a relook into organisational culture, as it relates to employees who may suffer from mental disorders, as shall be seen forthwith. Introduction According to the report that the 2007 ABS National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing released, there is a great extent to which several common mental disorders impact a persons performance at work. It follows logically that any mental disorder affects the reason and its answer, with the brain being the central nervous system CNS. This means that it is important for the rest of the body to function well, if the CNS or a compartment of the CNS is not properly functioning. The same is also underscored by the detail that work, however manual it may seem, is seriously a mental affair. As a product of the Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS, the 2007 ABS National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing report summarised and pointed out that the three headsman mental disorder groups are affective disorders such as depression anxiety disorder such as social phobia and means ab/use disorders such as the harmful use of alcohol, marijuana and other forms of stimulants. This report also divulged on the level of mental impairment, the accompanying physical conditions, the health services that are to be used to encompass mental health complications, accompanying demographic and socio-economic characteristics and relating demographic condit ions. These categories of mental illnesses and the prevailing conditions of mental health illnesses depart an insight into the manner in which common mental disorders impact a persons performance at work. philia abuse, affective and anxiety mental disorders are known to have the potency to undermine interpersonal relationships, so far interpersonal relationships are vital for the realisation of an organisations performance target. Particularly, complications emanating from the use of marijuana as a form of substance abuse may manifest through withdrawal symptoms, violent or aggressive behaviour, or behavioural excesses. These manifestations frustrate interpersonal talk and thereby undermining intra-organisational relations. Anxiety mental disorders such as fundamental shyness and affective disorders such as depression equally frustrate interpersonal communication at work, by hampering the flow of ideas, the channeling of operational command and personal confidence which is impo rtant. The place of interpersonal relations and intra-organisational communication is important in the attainment of both long-term and short-term performance target since supervision, the induction of refreshed employees and aspects of talent management such as training and workshop programmes are heavily reliant upon interpersonal relations within an organisation. Conversely, in the event that some of mental disorders persisting at the workplace, the organisation

Monday, April 22, 2019

BTN5-2 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

BTN5-2 - Coursework ExampleAnalyzing the pass along of the two firms as far as chronicle turnover is concerned, it can be concluded that apple improved its strain turnover by 33.7% (111-83)/83 *100. On the other hand, Google strain turnover reduce drastically by 89% (377-41)/377*100. The analysis shows that in the current year Apple had efficient concur measures on inventory as compared to Google.According to (Messmore, 52), inventory turnover and sidereal days gross revenue inventory are interlinked and inverse proportion to each other. He further elaborate that, an increase in inventory turnover reduces days sales in inventory. This can be evidenced in the changes that occurred in the two inventory control measures for Apple and Google. Prior year 1 Google had an inventory turnover of 377 and days sale inventory of 1 day, in the current year inventory turnover reduce to 41, thus increasing days sales inventory to 9 days. Days inventory gives the add of days a firm takes t o transform its inventory into cash. Apple has reduced the period from 10 days (prior year 3) to 3 days (current year) this shows its sales have increased. Google, on the other hand, has increased the number of days it takes to transform inventory into cash from zero days (prior year 2) to 9 days (current year). This shows its sales have been reducing

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Ratio Analysis- discuss comparative risk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ratio Analysis- discuss comparative happen - Essay ExampleIt remains around 30 for all these years (except 2009) which is a good sign for the confederacy. As far as interest attempt ratio for 1-year gap is concerned, it is also stable (except 2009) around 32. It means that the party will not fearfulness from its interest rate risk as it is not increasing consistently.The majuscule adequacy risk appears to be fair enough to cover unforeseen losses and obligations of the bank towards the investors. For the five years, the ratio is almost continuous (except for 2010) which means that the risk for being unable to discharge its obligations is not increasing showing a haughty sign for the company (Exhibit 4).Comparing the ratios of PNC limited with its peer group, it seems quite clear that the companys surgical process is better than the peer group with respect to credit risk ratio, interest risk ratio (both 1-year and 3-year gap) and capital adequacy ratio. However, PNC requires working with its liquidity ratio to have an advantage over its peer group.PNC needs to purify its liquidity ratio to have complete advantage over its peer. For this purpose PNC will have to pack some measures to recollect the amounts lent to those who appear to be bad debts. Further, the company needs to take locomote to collect cash amounts in lieu of interest on loan expanded by it to customers. The company should also withdraw some of its less earning investments. Further, PNC should revise its policy for its current regular interest salaried customers to urge them pay as soon as possible. All these steps will enable the company to increase its liquidity and hence will be able to avoid any liquidity risk arising in the near future

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Achilles and Odysseuses' Self-sufficiency Essay

Achilles and Odysseuses Self-sufficiency - Essay ExampleA community is necessary to fulfill laurelsable needs of a man (Gerson 73). The self sufficiency is fulfilled by (1) 1 has the abilities to procure necessitate resources (2) one does not need resource so large as to require help from others and (3) one does not need any amount whatsoever of those resources, like political power or friendship, which of course require others. Because Aristotle associates the sufficiency of 2& 3 with the pronounce or community, the self sufficiency through order may be called as political self-sufficiency and that is the focus of Aristotles discourse (Brown 5-6). The virtues and ultimate good are promoted by the state when man lives in the polis, the city. Human is a political animal and the man who lives away from polis or does not need the city is either the worst sort of animal or a super- human, the god. The power of barbarism indicates that human are not self sufficient since they can express pleasure or suffer and concept of justice and injustice clearly shows that human are political animals (Marietta, 127). The present article intends to liken personalities of Achilles and Odysseus in the light of Aristotles concept of self- sufficiency.The portrayal of Achilles and Odysseus is a presentation of bie ( wild force) and metis (tact or cleverness). Homer, though pays honor to Achilles which is deserved by his gr consumeness yet in the end the intelligence and endurance of Odysseus triumphs (Clay 96). When we first match Odysseus, he is sitting on the seashore, desolately lamenting for his island home Ithaca and his wife Penelope. His longing is for golf club, his city and domesticity. However, after struggled rejecting the public assembly and throwing the scepter on the floor, Achilles also sits by himself on the seashore with tears in his eyes and waiting for his mother Thetis. The goddess comes and promises to intervene with Zeus for him against Agamemnon. This scene shows Achilles obsessive and lonely nature, self-imposed isolation from his society instead he seeks godly intervention through his mother. Such a contrast in the warriors character is evident throughout the Homers epics (Abad 3).After the death of Patroclus, his dear friend, Achilles admits that despite his supremacy in war others are better than him. These others certainly included Odysseus. He is less elegant and hungry for glory merely at the same time more practical and less impetuous. In Iliad, Odysseus is entrusted with the task to return chrysies to her founding father he saves the day when Agamemnons catastrophic test of morals misfires. Besides, his good qualities, he also possesses great ornateness skills (Homer and Rutherford 16). Just before the war the assembled Greeks were having a feast on Tenedos. But Achilles was invited last. An argument took place amongst Agamemnon and Achilles. Odysseus tried to shift his attention from quarrel but Achilles annou nced returning back to home (Clay 99). It shows capability of Odysseus to resolve issues through dialogue while Achilles was reluctant to make use of that exclusive gift to man, the speech. At this Odysseus accused him of cowardice and harsh words were exchanged between them. Achilles did not need either the society or the reason as a social human would do. Achilles obsession with war and revenge is his nigh destructive side which is prominently depicted in Iliad. Odysseus urges Achilles to have breakfast and let the army eat too before seeking vengeance on

Friday, April 19, 2019

Project cost management article Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

stand comprise focusing article - Essay Exampley because of the fact that not many flock all over the world are aware of the value that the visualise cost wariness handicraft adds to a particular project. The study also highlights that the international construction industry has a history of projects which overran both in terms of time as well as cost. This highlights the necessity for an enhanced approach towards in force(p) project control and cost focus. With regards to the facts that have been mentioned, this scholar, in his paper, has endeavoured to review literatures in the field of global project cost management issues as well as the researches undertaken by number of professional cost management associations all over the world. The researcher caters to stress the need for the worldwide recognition of the project cost management profession as well as the development of international standards in this profession. This has been done on the rump of strategies and recomm endations provided by global organizations such as the World Bank and the UN with the underlying aim of developing ISO cost management standards as well as the development of various project cost management certification program, thereby, enhancing the professional standards in mostly developing countries.It is indeed true that the profession of project cost management is not internationally recognized which in turn leaves no scope of development for personnel who tell apart to work in this profession. Moreover, given the fact that there is no common definition of this job type, not much people are aware of the aspects of this profession (Smith, 2014). The profession of project cost management is cognize by different names in different countries (for example cost engineering in the Americas, criterion surveyor in the Europe and Asia) and therefore lacks a global identity. There is a hue disparity in the way project cost management is carried out in the developed countries such a s the US and the US when compared to the way it is done in the

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Business strategy-business game Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Business strategy-business lame - Essay ExampleA single strategic direction for the firm is selected which is the differentiation strategy as per the Bowmans strategy clock. The Bowmans strategy clock is used to identify hotshot or multiple strategic aspects that may be taken up by a society for developing competiveness, sustainability and continued success (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002). This is because the results of the analysis and the study of the external market indicate that the adoption of a differentiation strategy can be beneficial for the company for ensuring greater levels of success and sustainability for the future years.The weigh of companies operating in the gymnastic footwear segment in which the case company belongs ranges from 4 to 10 main companies. However, for the analysis, three main competitors of APanda Shoes are considered which are Diversity Footwear, C Athlete partnership and Bold Athletics Company.The company APanda Shoes operates in multiple geo graphical regions. The company has its manufacturing plants in normality America, Asia pacific, Europe, Africa and Latin America. This makes the athletic footwear manufacturing company much vulnerable towards the governmental norms in the different countries of its operation. The political factors like the stability of the political environment, the formulation of government policies, taxation policies, export and import policies and duties levied on the athletic footwear products are some of the common factors that would affect the business decisions and operations of APanda Shoes.The economic factors like ostentatiousness rates, Gross Domestic Predict (GDP), economic and business cycles, disposable income level and Purchasing Power parity (PPP) are some of the economic factors that would directly influence the profitability, sales and sustainability of the company in the four usable regions. The volatility of currency exchange systems and the fluctuations in the foreign excha nge

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

INTERPOL etc. communications between international law enforcement Essay

INTERPOL etc. communications between world(prenominal) law enforcement agencies - Essay ExampleThese law enforcement agencies are to some extent, geographically restricted in their king to apply law enforcement powers. The LEA may be capable of applying its powers within a nation, for instance, the US authority of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, or within a partition of a country, such as the Australian states Queensland constabulary, or, across a group of nations, like international organizations such as the Interpol. These law enforcement agencies that operate across an assemblage of countries foster out in law enforcement activities, rather than directly enforcing laws by smoothing the progress in the sharing of knowledge necessary for law enforcement between other enforcement agencies within different countries.In the forefront of battling international savage elements is the Interpol. Founded and established in Vienna, Austria in 1923, The International Crimin al Police Commission works for the objective of instigating global collaboration of criminal law forces (Deflem, 2000, pp. 601-640). Essentially, the ICPC was instituted as an international cooperative set-up of national police organizations with systems for worldwide telegraphic and radio communications and a journal published on a regular basis which conveys profound information among its member-states. By 1940, the Commission embodied more than 40 states, which included many known European powers like France, Germany, and Italy as well as some non-European countries, such as Bolivia, Iran, and Cuba. Basically, the International Criminal Police Organization-Interpol is the only worldwide organization of its kind with 177 member nations of which the General Secretariat is located in Lyons, France. The nearly important task of Interpol is to prop up police forces and the run of its member countries in their effort to corrupt crimes and to carry out criminal investigations as co mpetently and successfully as possible. So as to depict this support to member countries, Interpol conducts all its activities within the following three fundamental functions (UN, 2006, PP. 2-4) Secure international police communications servicesThe essential prerequisite for worldwide police collaboration is to enable police personnel to communicate with each other soundly and in real time globally, So as to reach out the international law enforcement community the best channels of communication, Interpol has crafted and executed a high-tech, global communications structure, ordinarily dubbed as the I-24/7. It facilitates the transmission of significant data about individuals and crimes, including photographs, fingerprints and DNA profiles, to its member countries, in a safe method within a matter of seconds. Currently, 183 of its 184 member countries are connected to this system. Operational data services and databases Once law enforcers can communicate globally, they need a ccess to information to aid in their investigations or to take the necessary steps to deter transgressions and felonies. Hence, Interpol developed and maintains an extensive array of global databases, covering major(ip) data like names of criminals and suspected individuals, search requests for wanted persons, fingerprints,

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Discussion on Quantitative Reasoning for Business Course Essay Example for Free

Discussion on Quantitative debate for line of merchandise Course EssayDiscussion on Quantitative Reasoning for Business Course Self Reflection Paper 10/15/08 Discussion on Quantitative Reasoning for Business Course For many years, the quantitative or mathematical approach to business problem answer was the cornerstone of MBA programs worldwide. The traditional approach has been a rational analysis information is collected, collated, analyzed and interpreted, alternatives are formulated, and a logical choice is consciously arrived at (Bagchi, 2005).In practice this means the more information, the better cool down and calm strategic thinking should not be debased by feelings efficient thought and demeanor must be called upon to subjugate emotion (Sadler-Smith, 2004). The Quantitative Reasoning for Business course would provide me with the prerequisites demand to master the rational analysis. In recent years, however, the usefulness of the quantitative analysis bringing up f or future managers has been vomit into doubt.The requirement for fast decisions and the limits of human beings rational information-processing capacities may combine to impose severe demands upon executives cognitive capabilities to speak masses of information at the necessary speed (Sadler-Smith, 2004). That is when scholarship comes into play. Intuition is difficult to describe scarcely easy to recognize. Many of us will be intimately familiar with our own intuitions and will likely be able to identify, and may even envy or admire, those individuals who confidently display a bowel feel for complex situations and who appear to have an instinct for grasping key issues quickly.This quality can be nurtured through life experience. The optimal solution thus, might be a combination of two approaches depending on circumstances. The relationship between intuition and rationality can work in two ways. For example, proceeding from intuition to rational analysis represents a validation sequence in which gut feeling may be checked out by rational analysis by posing questions such as Do the data support my hunch? Proceeding from rational analysis to intuition represents an incubation sequence in which intuition provides an expertise-based or feelings-based validation for judgments arrived at through rational analysis (Sadler-Smith, 2004). In summary, quantitative training will probably benefit me by preparing me for the future courses in economics, finance, accounting, operations, and research (Quantitative Reasoning for Business Overview, nd). more(prenominal) importantly though, it will prepare me for the future real world work, even when its direct usefulness is not as extensive as often believed its proponents.

Reliable Pharmaceutical Service Essay Example for Free

Reliable pharmaceutical Service EssayThe scope of the project is to collapse a weave based application for Reliable Pharmaceutical Service to ease the existing governance for its employees. The stark naked wind vane based application should be user friendly and should be hosted at the home plate of Reliable Pharmaceutical Service. The existing data Reliable Pharmaceutical Service should be moved into the new web based application. Before the start of the development activities of the web based application, the activities like drift estimation, lay on the line identification, budget allocation, resource identification etc should be completed to ensure hassle free development of the project. The effort estimation should be done very precisely to ensure the timely completion of the project.The testing of the web based application plays an important role in the successful project delivery therefore the package should be extensively tested so avoid any hiccups in the future . There will be several defects that may be identified during the testing phase. The resolution of all such defects is also in the scope of this project. The existing losses of Reliable Pharmaceutical Service are due to the complex remains on which the whole company relies upon. The new web based application should work in such a way that Reliable Pharmaceutical Service should start making profits once again.The web based application so developed should be such that the widespread network of Reliable Pharmaceutical Service should be precisely united. The business that is being carried forward with the existing old technologies should be on the whole replaced with the new web technology without any loss of data.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Explore the techniques used Essay Example for Free

Explore the techniques used EssayExplore the techniques used by Carol Ann Duffy to create separate vocalizations by comparing two of the persona poems. In the poem imposture, Duffy takes on the persona of an historical figure and creates a voice for it. She writes from the point of view of this character. In doing so, Duffy portrays the feelings and emotions of that character as she sees them. The character in Fraud is a Jewish man whose family were all killed in the Nazi holocaust. His trope was Jon Ludwick Hoch, who later varys his name to Robert Maxwell.This was so that he could escape his past and what he left behind when he left Slovakia and to help him fit in when he moved to England. A way in which a voice is created in this poem is through use of the language, this marks it so you basin tell it offer only scrape from this specific character. The language is truly direct and factual, giving no alternatives. What was my aim? To change from a bum a To a billionaire . The language exposes a divide about this persona. It shows that he was expert and cunning and knows what he is talking about.The character is not self pitying like that of the persona in Havisham,but conds supplanting. The two characters through the use of different voices in each poem argon portrayed as once being very vulnerable but now have become hardened by time. Povertys dumb. Take it from me Sunny Jim. This quote is from Fraud this shows how the voice is dominating and condescending. When looking at the poem you can agilely see that the television channel length is generally short, with no more than fourteen words per line and no less than two.This may be a method in which the personas thoughts be expressed, very rapid and direct thoughts. A lot of the lines end with M, for example scum, slum. This M sound is crude and suggests that the voice is equal to that of a whining and spoilt child. Which, in turn, when you research the real life character, says a lot abou t the person. He Lots of words in the poem are mono syables which gives a heavy beat to the end of the line. The character speaks in colloquial language, using a lot of slang words this gives us an immediate opinion of the character.There is a frequent use of curse words this gives you the impression that the character is very direct not only in his conversations with people but with his whole out look to life. lecture such as Mother fucker are swear words, but when used in this context in the play it gives a depth to the character. Through Duffys use of words we as readers can learn more about the character she is portraying/ A device that Duffy has used in this poem and with a lot of previous poems is the use of ellipsis. For example, the man speaks elliptically, his attitude towards things and he doesnt explain himself.This shows that his character is Shady , he elliptically refers to modern things. When he is talking about God, he talks elliptically about a lesbian sex show. therefore theres Him- for whom I paid for a butch and femme To make him come. To create the contrasting voice in this poem, Duffy uses the to a higher place techniques. But what techniques are used in another of her persona poems Havisham? Havisham is a character taken from writings and given a voice by Duffy. The woman in question is the tragic Miss Havisham from Charles Dickenss apologue Great Expectations. Some history to the character in Havisham is she was jilted at the alter by her buff whom she was due to marry. She never really recovered from that day. Inside her house she kept the wedding feast as it was, at this point rotting and rat infested. She wore her once beautiful wedding dress, now reduced to ignominious rags. The point is, she wanted to keep everything exactly the way it was the day of her wedding, in hope that her lover would come back to her. Clearly from the outset there is still bitterness for the love she lost unsuspectedly.The first literary device used in this poem, in the first line is an oxymoron when referring to her lover. This suggests what she once felt for him, and what she thinks of him now. An oxymoron is a contradiction, so it begs the question, how can he be both of these things? Beloved strike bastard. As in Fraud, there is a use of elliptical language which leaves the reader asking themselves questions about the character and what she is referring to. Not a day since then I havent wished him dead . Prayed for it So hard I have bad green pebbles for eyes,Ropes on the back of my hand I could strangle with. Who is he? When was then? To make this more effective and dramatic, Duffy uses a metaphor to try and convey what it feels like. What it feels like when she is saying how much she has longed for him to be dead. Her eyes are compared to dark green pebbles. This has all sorts of connotations, what does a dark green pebble feel like? The first thing that comes to my genius is that it is referring to how she has beco me cold and almost unhuman. This is what he has reduced her to.Another metaphor is employed in the like stanza when she talks about the ropes on her hands. Of course, she does not literally have ropes on her hands its connotations are that of veins. The veins on her hands are bulging, through the stress she has been put through. This poem is full of rage and anguish, unlike Fraud where the main tone was demeaning of others. The woman in this poem is extremely self pitying and is all told self absorbed over what this man did to her. She is lonely and lost, grieving for her lost love. This poem is not usually structured it does not flow as most poems do.In the first two stanzas there are two or three words, then a full stop. This method is to give that line a more dramatic and edgy feel, to set off the enigmas in the poem. Spinster. I stink and remember. Beloved sweetheart bastard. Both of the personas in these poems are not happy or jubilant in any way, they are depressing figur es that eventually come to their end. The point is that similar methods are used to create the two contrasting voices. The way in which you use them and the language used is what really determines the creation of a contrasting voice and persona.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Peer Pressure Essay Example for Free

partner force per unit atomic number 18a EssayIntroduction mate stuff is a social influence exerted on an individual by others in order to get that person to act or believe in a exchangeable way. It is used by a social group, a great deal with the implication that everybodys doing it. This influence bed be oppose or positive, with a successful result being a change in a persons behavior. most all children experience both(prenominal) form of mate constrict, whether at school, at church or at home among siblings. As a kind of social pinch, it dominates preteen life. Many teens become absorbed into contrastive cliques and groups, send awaying less(prenominal) time with their families.Much of the personality of a teen can be influence by a couple group. Negative couple pressure can be a knockout tool against children, especially younger or insecure children. They may be persuaded to take actions they might differently non get down considered, such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol or taking drugs. Peer pressure is a problem for adults, who may be coerced, for example, into buying a house or political machine they cant afford in an effort to keep up with the Joneses. Peer pressure is not continuously interdict, however. A student whose friends excel in academics may be compelled to study hard and get near(a) grades.Influence can in addition be exerted to get a friend off drugs or to financial aid an adult take up a good habit or drop a drab one. Study groups, configuration projects and athletic groups are examples of positive peer groups. Why I chose the topic I decided to chose this topic because in the Indian Education System children experience a sudden slug of freedom and responsibility to shape their future at the same time. In such cases, they can either be well-guided or mis-guided. Peer pressure may similarly lead to puree and anxiety. Teens have a multitude of issues that can cause them anxiety.The two major settings for this peer pressure teen stress are in their home lives and in the college setting. The stressors are umteen and diverse. Their sapidityings can be affected by some of the issues listed below * The feelings that others and also inside themselves tell them they should do and how they should perform. * Peer pressure teen stress is also caused by the way they feel they are viewed by adults in the college setting. * The peer pressure teen stress to perform in the grades and work they do. * Problems with socializing with other teens. Problems at home with family members. * Having a low egotism worth. * Always having verbal conflicts with their friends and family. * Low income living conditions for the family. * Peer pressure teen stress is sometimes caused by a major event causing grief or trauma within the family. This could be death, an illness, or parents splitting up. * A split in the relationship with a boyfriend or girlfriend. * The neighborhood in which they live is not a good place. * Having to move to a new home is yet a cause of the peer pressure teen stress. Having to adapt to a new school/college environment. Objectives of the project The main(prenominal) objective of the project is to discuss the issue of peer pressure under no pressure. The students must be made to understand how they can grasp the good and leave the bad. The project tries to distinguish surrounded by Good Peer Pressure and Bad Peer Pressure. It analyses various aspects that cause such a pressure and hurls a solution to the same. The project also gives a remedy for overcoming bad peer pressure. The project also makes suggestions as to how can peer-pressure-struck children can be helped.The project also tries to examine the reasons that make children give-in to peer pressure. hither are some other reasons why multitude give in to peer pressure, that are less kn witness but equally as responsible. The lack of self-confidence to go ones own way. It is easier to follo w the footsteps of other than to make your own. There is also a certain level of safety that comes with following another. Taking the roadway less traveled by making your own choices takes self-confidence and self-assurance. The desire to avoid embarrassment. Many people fear embarrassment more than death.Knowing this, it is easy to see how important effective communication can be in responding to peer pressure. For example, if a bunch of peers surround a teenager and asked him if he wants to plenty a cigarette like the rest of them have, and all the teenager can think of is, but my mommy said I should just say no. then he is in trouble. It is best to desex yourself and your children with witty, yet clear and firm responses to known peer pressures. For example, in the above situation the teenager could say, Hmmm, spend my life wasting money, offending people, having bad breath, and killing myself. o thanks. A good response cannot except save one from embarrassment, but give others the confidence to not give in to the peer pressure as well. Those who lead are often well respected by those who follow. The lack of using ones own mind. Again it is reacting, rather than responding that causes one to get in trouble. Think about the consequences of your actions, both present and future. Dont give in and sacrifice your long-term goals for short-term gratification. The lack of unbiased information. When someone feels pressure from peers, they are often presented with biased information.Again it is preparation that can help one to avoid peer pressure by knowing all the facts. Anticipate peer pressure in life and get the facts from a unquestionable source. Educate yourself and your children dont count on the school system to do it. Some of the more common peer pressures experienced in youth that can be prepared for today are smoking, alcohol, drugs, sex, cutting class and committing crimes. The biggest peer pressure in adulthood is being expected to behave, act, and perform like your peers rather than meet the person you are capable of becoming.Know the reasons for and against these pressures. Resources referred ? browbeat Prevention Program http//www. clemson. edu/olweus/ ? Take Action Against Bullying www. bullybeware. org ? Steps to Respect A Bully Prevention Program www. cfchildren. org/str. html ? Breaking the Cycle of craze Intervention for Bullying and Victimization (1996) By Richard J. Hazler ? How to Say No and Keep your Friends Peer Pressure turnaround time for ? Teens and Pre-Teens (1997). By Sharon Scott ? CAFS Teacher Talk Volume 1(3) 1996 http//education. indiana. du/cas/tt/v3i3/peerpress. html Preventing Classroom Bullying What Teachers Can Do (2003). By Jim Wright http//jimwrightsonline. com/pdfdocs/bully/bullyBooklet. pdf ? Resource for parents http//sitemaker. umich. edu/356. darnell/advice_for_parents Conclusions Growing up, everyone will experience some form of peer pressure. Peer pressure is the control and inf luence people of our age may have on us. Peer pressure can occur in many kinds of relationships. The way we respond to peer pressure can have a great impact on the decisions we make and, in turn, our total health.There are many different types of peer pressure. There is positive, interdict, and manipulation. Positive peer pressure is not limited to following or setting good examples of what to do. It can also provide examples of what not to do. A teen whose friends do not use alcohol or other drugs may be positively influenced to follow their example. Being a good role model is also a great way to demonstrate positive peer pressure. Influencing peers to take part in a positive act or worthwhile cause is a healthful way of influencing others. It can be contagious.We are primarily social beings with a strong subscribe to to belong. Throughout our life, we search for the balance between independence and connectedness. How much of ourselves do we give up/ via media in order to belong? The teenage years (and pre-teen) are a time of shifting decoct of belonging from family to peers as while also developing a personal identity. Because kids dont yet have the matureness to grasp or to understand the potential consequences of being influenced by their friends, it is difficult for them to see the pitfalls of poor relationships and negative peer pressure.This project is designed to walk us through the inquiry and clarification of the need to feel connected and belong, as well as to be true to ones self while assessing the harmful affects of peer pressure. In addition to the inquiry looking at the costs/benefits belonging, it will identify strategies to deal with negative peer pressure and ways to turn it around, creating positive peer pressure, building leadership and personal power.

Friday, April 12, 2019

The Welcome Table Essay Example for Free

The Welcome Table EssayWe as humankind have learned to be considerate of people and their differences, we have also encouraged the development of totally human beings. But many years ago people were not considerate of people of other(a) ethnicities. The possibilities for everyone have become more equal during modern times. I have been intrigued by the racial and honest dilemmas that most of our ancestors had to endure. The short story that I have chosen to discuss is The Welcome Table By Alice Walker. The human race has come so far since we have had such severe racial discrimination, although it has not disappeared completely.The Welcome Table, along with many other new age stories really have shown the importance of acceptation of many ethnicities. Point of View The theme of a story is a representation of the idea skunk the story. (Clugston 2010). The Welcome Table written by Alice Walker, is about an old Afri foot American char who attends a white community church. This story is told in omniscient ternary individual point of hatful. Third person point of view occurs when the speaker is not the participant in the story. (Clugston 2010). On her way to church, she received looks of alarming disgust.People felt sorry for her, and they feared her. She walked into the church, and she was immediately the center of attention by the congregation. It was made clear to this elder lady that she was not welcome to worship with this church. She wanted to be in the house of God, she also demand her time with a higher power, and those rights were stripped from her for being from an African American background. She left without a press out God immediately approached the old lady as she left this church and they walked off together.Walker shows us how important skin color was to people back in this time in history. Not entirely were they segregated, it was not considered wrong to decline services to those of a different ethnic background. Walker uses a thir d person point of view in telling the story. She switches points of view throughout the story and really emphasise the theme of the story. As she walks into to the church Walker is speaking from the congregations point of view, then to the indicates, then to the white congregation. persona She was angular and lean and the color of poor gray. Walker 2003). She was dressed in her Sunday meeting clothes. She wore a long mildewed rusted black dress with missing buttons and a grease-stained scarf covering her pigtails. She has dirty-brown eyes, is ashen in appearance and very wrinkled. She is sweating from her walk and is shivering from the cold. She enters the white church and sits, singing in her head. She is physically thrown out of the church. She sees Jesus travel down the highway and is giddy with joy. Jesus tells her to follow him and she does, walking alongside him.He looks just like she thought he would, and he listens to her sing and talk to him. He was wearing immaculate w hite, long dress trimmed in gold around the neck and hem, and a red, a bright red cape. (Walker 2003) Over his left arm he carried a brilliant blue blanket. He is wearing sandals and a beard and long hair parted on the side. (Walker 2003). She feels great beside him and can walk as long as he wants. She tells him about her hardship works for whites and the injustices that have taken place . She feels his kindness and instantly feels better.The old elderly char saw Jesus wave to her. He told her to follow him. She broke her silence to tell Jesus how glad she was that he had come, how she had often looked at his picture. They hide to walk together. The ground began to look like clouds. They continued to walk looking straight ahead, she had a make a face on her face. Conclusion The Welcome Table is told in omniscient third person and shifts the point of view from which the story is told. The beginning of the story is told from the point of view of the white congregation. They view the elderly black woman as being beneath them.She receives evil stares as she enters the church to seek Jesus. She feels her time on earthly concern is coming to an end. She is treated badly because of her ethnic background. The usher then asks the elderly woman to leave the church. The women in church feel threatened by the aging woman because of the color of her skin view switches to the usher who tells the elderly African American woman to leave. The men in the church carry the elderly woman out of the church. The woman then sees Jesus walking down the highway. She walks along with him and she is never seen again.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

DSC2006 Unofficial Mid-Term Mock Test Essay Example for Free

DSC2006 drumhead Mid-Term Mock Test EssayDSC2006 Unofficial Mid-Term Mock Test2010/11 Semester 2Select the disclosego answer1. Business organizations consist of three major functions which, ideally a) support one an oppositeb) are mutually exclusivec) exist independently of each new(prenominal)d) function independently of each othere) do non interface with each other2. Revenue management is concerned witha) a surgical operation designed to determine the best handling of funds gene investd through sales. b) the part of marketing tools to increase revenue.c) the use of accounting tools to monitor cash flow. d) the use of pricing to increase the profit gene strayd from a limited hand over of supply chain assets.e) the appropriate use of operational tools to improve operational efficiency with a moot to increasing revenue.3. In narrate to make oppositeial pricing effective, which of the side rake issues are to be dealt with?a) The household essential unalikeiate betw een the market segments and structure its pricing to make one segment wage more(prenominal) than the other.b) The firm must control choose such that the lower give segment does not use the entire availability of the asset.c) The firm must secure enough capacity to meet imply from each segment. d) The firm should structure pricing according to diametric market segments and alike control demand in such a way that the lower segment does not utilize the entire availability of the asset.e) The firm must secure enough capacity to meet demand of each segment and also control demand in such a way that the lower segment does not utilize the entire availability of the asset.4. In edict to differentiate between different market segments, the firm must a) negotiate separately with different market segments that value mathematical product or service attrisolelyes differently.b) hit barriers by identifying product or service attributes that the segments value differently.c) develop pri cing structures based on the volume of various product or service attributes.d) eliminate barriers that identify product or service attributes that the segments value differently.e) take in barriers by identifying product or service attributes that the segments value differently and also negotiate separately with different market segments.5. Under which of the following condition(s) is the concept of revenue management is applicable?a) Capacity is perishable.b) The selfsame(prenominal) whole of capacity finish be used to deliver product or service to different submarkets having their hold demand curves with different legal injury elasticity. c) Using appropriate booking rules, a firm can create a fence among the relevant submarkets.d) Capacity is perishable, the same capacity can be used to different submarkets having their own demand curves with different price elasticity and also the firm can create a fence among the relevant submarkets.e) Capacity is perishable and the same capacity can be used to different submarkets having their own demand curves with different price elasticity 6. Throughput clipping cannot be reduced in a border bya) Reducing the utilization of bottleneck equipmentb) Performing activities using a serial move upc) Changing the place of activitiesd) Reducing interruptionse) All of the above are ways by which throughput time can be reduced 7. According to Littles Law, which of the following ratios is used to find throughput time?a) Cycle time/ suffice timeb) Throughput time/Process velocityc) Process velocity/Throughput timed) Work-in-Process/Throughput ratee) Value conducted time/Process velocity8. A firm can participate in the quantity discount illustrated on a lower floor when purchasing a product. It cost $20 to amaze an order each time. The holding cost rate is 20%. The annual demand for the product is 10,000 units. Lead time for the product is 1 month. Quantity520 woo$12$10$9What is the minimum conglomeration cost that t his firm can purchase and caudex this item while facing a quantity discount?a) 90,468b) 90,853c) 90,894d) 100,000e) 100,8949. Which of the following determines the capacity of a doing line? a) the takt timeb) the throughput timec) the theoretical minimum number of civilise stationsd) the efficiency10. Which of the following types of manufacturing layout is considered a hybrid? a) Process layoutb) Product layoutc) Fixed- pose layoutd) Cellular layout11. Compute the required cycle time for a process that operates 8 hours dailywith a required output of 300 units per day.a) 0.625 proceedingsb) 1.6 minutesc) 37.5 minutesd) 0.027 minutes12. Which of the following is NOT a mark of a good layout in manufacturing? a) Straight line flow patter (or adaption)b) Predictable production linec) Bottleneck operationsd) Work stations boney togethere) Open plant floors ( uplifted visibility)13. Revenue management is not especially useful wherea) Capacity is relatively fixedb) The market can be f airly clearly segmentedc) The service cannot be exchange in advanced) The service/product can be stored14. Which is the correct order for process types kickoff with low volume/high variety and moving to high volume/low variety?a) potty processes, compute processes, line of merchandise obtain processes, mass processes, unremitting processesb) Project processes, chain reactor processes, mass processes, job shop processes, continuous processesc) Project processes, job shop processes, chaw processes, mass processes, continuous processesd) Job shop processes, batch processes, mass processes, continuous processes, project processes15. Which is the correct sequence in order of increasing process flexibility? a) Job shop / batch / project / continuous / productb) Project / job shop/ batch / continuous / productc) Job shop/ batch / project / product / continuousd) Project / job shop/ batch / product / continuouse) Continuous / product / batch / job shop/ project16. Which of these s tatements is correct?The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)a) Is a formula that calculates a realistic purchase price for an item b)Will depend on how legion(predicate) related parts are required in the same periodc) Is used to calculate how much safety stock should be carried d) Determines the lowest order quantity by balancing the cost of ordering against the cost of holding stocke) Should be deliberate once a year17. Under the ABC system of account priorities a Class A item is a) The 80% of high-value items that account for some 20% the total stock turnover valueb) The 20% of high-value items that account for around 20% the total stock turnover valuec) The 20% of high-value items that account for around 80% the total stock turnover valued) The 80% of high-value items that account for around 80% the total stock turnover value18. The layout where the equipment, machinery, plant and people move as necessary is known asa) Product layoutb) Fixed-position layoutc) Cell layoutd) Process layout19. A supermarket is usually positioned asa) Cell layoutb) Process layoutc) Fixed-position layoutd) Product layout20. A self-service cafeteria is usually positioned asa) Cell layoutb) Product layoutc) Fixed-position layoutd) Process layout21. Which of the following is usually considered a peculiarity of a product or line layout?a) This layout can proceedsously handle high volume but low variety b) This layout tends to be genuinely pliantc) Transforming resources are costly to maintaind) This layout can easily handle high variety but low volume e) Transforming resources move to the work22. A product layouta) Groups transforming resources into dedicated cellsb) Involves locating the transforming resources entirely for the convenience of the transformed resourcesc) Is appropriate for low volume operationsd) Allows a wide variety of products to be manufactured on the same equipment e) Moves resources to the place where the operation is to be carried out23. Cell layouts typica llya) Locate transforming resources entirely for the convenience of the transformed resourcesb) Cost more to run than other types of process layoutc) Involve all the operations on a product being located adjacent to each other d) Are dominated by the transforming resourcese) Are the roughly efficient form of process layout24. Which of the following is the least likely decision to be made by Operations Managers?a) Designing and improving the jobs of the workforceb) Selecting the location and layout of a facilityc) How much capacity is required to balance demandd) How to use quality techniques to reduce wastee) Deciding which market areas to manufacture products for25. Which of the following would not normally be considered a general characteristic of a service?a) Many services involve both literal and intangible outputs b) Production and consumption are simultaneousc) Production and consumption can always be spatially separated d) Low contact services can often be made more effic ient than high contact servicese) Production and sales cannot easily be separated functionally26. Which of the following is not usually considered a characteristic of a fixed position layout?a) Fixed position layouts are often used for large or delicate products or services b) Transforming resources are class in cellsc) The recipient of the process or the work being undertaken remain in the same placed) Fixed position layouts are able to offer high flexibility e) Transforming resources often move to the work27. Operations management isa) decision making involving the design, planning, and control of the processes that produce goods and services.b) decision making involving accounting, engineering, marketing, and strategy expression that affect operations.c) decision making involving operations productivity and the reliability, durability, and manufacturability of products.d) decision making involving analyzing the competitive environment, appraising the organizations skills and re sources, and examining the limitations of political economy and technology on operations.28. Inputs to the transformation process of operations include a) Labour, capital, management, and genuine.b) Product design, materials planning, production planning, and product distribution.c) strategical planning, marketing, engineering, and purchasing d) Steel, plastics, fibres, food crops, or other raw materials. 29. Some characteristics of services that differentiate them from goods (manufactured products) area) intangible, neighboring(a) consumption, high customer contactb) inventory, immediate consumption, options availablec) delayed consumption, intangible, customer contactd) immediate consumption, options available, inventory30. The concept of value-added meansa) the customer must add value to a product by paying for it b) machines add value to the production process because of their low cost c) only service operations add value for the customerd) outputs of a process are worth more to customers than the sum of inputs31. Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) differs from a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) in thata) CIM usually includes one or more FMSs as components.b) An FMS does not use computers at all.c) CIM is only one component of an FMS.d) CIM is concerned only with data while FMS involves production processes. 32. A union is planning to produce a product that will compete in a high-volume market that is very price-competitive. What type of process would be most appropriate?a) projectb) job shopc) batchd) continuous33. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a product layout? a) standard product.b) high volume production.c) same sequence of operations for each unit.d) each order may require a unique sequence of operations.34. The desired production rate for an assembly line is 120 units-per hour. What would be the cycle time?a) 30 seconds per unitb) 40 seconds per unitc) 0083 minutes per unitd) 2 minutes per unit35. Which of the followin g is an advantage of a cellular layout? a) higher volume than an assembly line.b) greater f1exibility than a job shop.c) reduced material handling.d) use of more employees.36. A company has a set of tasks that must be completed to encounter a product. The total time for these tasks is 96 minutes. The cycle time is 3 minutes and the company has plunge that 40 work stations are required to balance the line. What is the efficiency (or utilization) for this assemblyline?a) 95%b) 90%c) 85%d) 80%37. Which of the following IS NOT a use of inventory?a) Buffer against falteringlyb) Allow for large variations in productionc) Decouple different processesd) Allow for smooth production38. A retailer stocks a certain product that is sold at the rate of 10,000 units per year. Each replenishment order from the outside supplier costs $50. The price is $40 per unit and inventory carrying cost per year is 10% of unit price, how many units should be ordered each time to minimize total annual cost?a) 100b) 250c) 500d) 1,00039. Referring to the preceding problem, suppose the supplier requires that orders be placed for 2,000 units at a time. What would be the total annual variable cost of ordering and carrying inventory?a) $ 2,000b) $ 2,500c) $ 4,250d) $ 8,00040. A certain item is egress to quantity discounts as shown below Quantity Price1 4950 999 atomic number 19 or morePurchased Per Unit$ 2.50$ 2.00$ 1.80If 1,000 units are used per year and it costs $450 to place an order due to high shipping costs, how many should be ordered at a time to minimize variable costs if carrying cost per unit per year is 50% of unit value?a) 1000b) 500c) 100d) 5041. A company has 100 inventory items with total annual dollar usage of $3,000,000. Which of the following is most likely a C Inventory Item based on ABC analysis?a)b)c)d) bust 1078236512877864Annual $ Usage$500,000$250,000$52,000$1,00042. A company manufactures repair parts. These parts are used at the rate of5,000 units per year. It cos ts $100 every time more are produced. The cost of holding these parts in inventory is 20% of unit price, which is $25 per unit. The parts can be produced at the rate of 6,250 per year. How many units should be produced at a time to minimize total annual cost?a) 500b) 1000c) 1500d) 2000

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Causes of Gang Involvement Essay Example for Free

Causes of Gang Involvement EssayToday, ingroups in America cause a huge problem. Are there any positives for having a gang in the community? Does anything good enumerate out of having a gang in the atomic number 18a? The answer to all of these questions is no. Gang interest directly affects neighborhoods and has negative effects on communities.One of the first reasons a person joins a gang is because of scotch despair or deprivation in the bea they live in. Gangs get to as a way for their group to make m championy. Some ways gangs earn an income is by selling drugs, committing thefts, prostitution of women, and sometimes even killing others for money. Because of economic despair, gangs are usually found in sum neighborhoods. When we think of rundown neighborhoods, we think of poor housing and small incomes for those living in the neighborhood. This is why gangs will do average about anything for money. If the community or neighborhood fails to provide a way to earn mone y, the gangs will direct to find other ways to receive an income. Gangs provide the process a way out of economic despair and into the lifestyle of fancy living.Because of bad economic times, this may cause a gang member to have low self-esteem about themselves. A member might be an outcast at the school they attend and are not well liked even in their own infrastructure sometimes. Even their own peers might give them a hard time. The gang entices the possible member with the aptitude to receive power, respect, and money. Gangs form in order to provide the individual with low self-esteem a come across to build their self-esteem through the gang. The gangs reputation, interaction with gang members, accomplishments of the gang, and gaining power through the gang sends loads of say-so to the new member. This new confidence usually gives the newest member the feeling of invincibility. But, as we all know, no one today is invincible.The thought of being rich and having the respect of others are two main reasons for members to join a gang. But, one of the simplest and easiest reasons new members join is because simply they can Gangs from because they can it is as simple as that. Gangs form when non-gang delinquents and gang delinquents are left for themselves. The groups simply are left unmonitored and have no structure to fill them while living their lives. These individuals are looking for ways to get into trouble and to cause problems. The members also do not respect their elders which also can cause problems. As long as there are victims to prey on, the gangs will prey on them.Overall, gangs do not send a positive wave of feeling when the word is heard. The members of gangs are troubled and confused individuals who are looking for ways to fill the voids that are in their lives. That is what a gang offers, ways to fill these voids. These are frequently negative ways to double-dyed(a) the person. The causes of gangs directly affect the community and neighb orhood where the residents live.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Theory to practice Essay Example for Free

Theory to practice strainBig Time Toymaker (BTT) develops, manu positionures and distributes toys and board games. An inventor named Chou created a board game called Strat. Chous invention caught the direction of BTT and they sought out to negotiate with Chou. During the time of communication between two Chou and BTT an stipulation was made. both(prenominal) parties concord to BTT having exclusive negotiating wrights for a 90-day period in exchange for $25,000.00. The agreement sound outd that no specialise exist unless in pen. After a meeting when an oral agreement was made Chou was electronic mailed a document paper Strat deal by a manager of BTT. This e-mail can be considered the recoil in writing and Chou assumed so, later to find that BTT was now run by new-fashioned management who claimed they were uninterested in his invention.The point where parties entered a centralize was when the BTT manager send Chou an email subject Strat Deal. This was the point where a contract was mad because BTT had received an exclusive 90day negotiating period, and distribution agreement wasnt going to be in effect until received in writing. This email also include equipment casualty discussed during the oral agreement and pricing. The agreement of a contract was that it had to be in writing in order to exist. Never did BTT stress the form of writing. An email consist of written words, at that placefore it was a written agreement. A contract is an agreement with specific terms between two or more battalion or entities in which there is a promise to do something in return for something else. When the email was move that was the completion of the exchange and fulfilled contract requirements. The oral agreement that both parties had before the email was sent was establishing objective intent to contract. BTT also sent a fax to Chou a month after the 90day period passed requesting the draft to be sent. This action also showed intent to contract. What weigh s in Chous favor in terms of parties objective to contract is the fact that BTT paid him. They exchanged money for exclusive negotiating rights. Chou couldalways state an unilateral mistake was made and he misunderstood the terms of an agreement. The fact that both parties communicated by email has no impact on the decision of Chou rightfully notwithstanding having a contract.Email is skillful as sufficient as a letter or hand written draft. With a subject email sent saying Strat deal. The law governing which contracts must be in writing in order to be enforceable is also known as the statue of frauds according to University of Phoenix The juristic surround of Business (2011) . The contract was emailed to Chou before the 90day deadline right after an oral agreement. The statue of frauds supports Chou still having a valid contract. BTT could avoid this contract under mistake. Chou had mistaken the email as the contract agreement. BTT specified that the distribution deal would only be valid if contract was in writing. BTT could argue their signification of a contract in writing is a contract on paper. This would be a interchangeable mistake. Both parties had a different understanding of what a contract consist of. Mutual mistake shows both parties at fault instead of only one. If the email does constitute an agreement, the thing that support this agreement is the fact that Chou was within the 90 day period when the email was sent. Although the email said nothing to the highest degree a contract it was titled Strat Deal. During the verbal agreement Chou was lead to believe that both parties had eventually agreed on the terms of the contract.Assuming that Chou did have a contract and BTT decided to shock the contract Chou could obtain remedies for his lost. The proper remedy would be compensatory damages. Compensatory damages are an attempt to intrust the nonbreaching party in the same position she would have been in if the other party had performed as ag reed (melvin, 2011, Chapter Chapter 7, Contract PerformanceConditions, Breach, and Remedies). By the new management breaching the contract Chou misses out on possible profits that could have occurred if the contract had been followed through with. The remedy that would be less favorable would be eventful damages. Assuming from the theory that Chou had nothing in place directly depending on the completion of his contract, there is nothing that would be affected indirectly from the unfulfillment of the contract. Consequential damages compensate foreseeable indirect losses. lead citedMelvin, S. P. (2011). The Legal Environment of Business A Managerial Approach Theory to Practice. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection. Melvin, Sean P. (2011). The Legal Environment of Business A Managerial Approach Theory to Practice. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection.

Sunday, April 7, 2019

A Managerial Strategy Essay Example for Free

A Managerial system EssayThe principal purpose and function of health worry musical arrangements is to ensure that their services. Above all their duties is geared towards sympathize with for their patients health and emphasize the ability of the organization to serve their patients skillfully and responsibly. Further, they offer contrary types of services which include medical and behavioral health care services, accordingly, this includes public and community health care programs and in the contemporary scenario, corporate power.As a matter of fact, it has been stressed in The Well-Managed Healthcare makeup that in order to ensure that a healthcare organization is really doing its task of safeguarding the health of its patients (and non really attracting them to be its client), a health organization should improve the quality of its services (Griffith White, 2006), which streng therefores the argument of harnessing the managerial skills of healthcare practitioners. More over, it should also maintain a well-facilitated plant in which the patients are being accommodated. Given with such(prenominal) instances, it highlights the perception that healthcare organizations are mandated to implement certain administrative methods to meet the mounting complications derived over by societal altercates (Griffith White, 2006).One of the cited feasible and efficient techniques in achieving managerial success is proper organization of the activities and the developmental plan of the entity. It is through the alignment of program objectives that the goals are obtained and prevents the rise of problems which deals with conflicts or miscommunication.If the programs are aligned well, then the members of the organization shall have a clear vision on what to expect, and oversee necessary changes so as to improve their performance. Simple logic basically revolves in the verity of the strategy common problems arise when the organization has no definite goals which lead to disorientation. Similar to that of business entities, healthcare practitioners must also take the challenge of facing the waves of managerial confrontations.ReferenceGriffith, J. R., White, K. R. (2006). The Well-Managed Healthcare Organization (6th ed.). New York Health Administration Press.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Serve or Fail Essay Example for Free

Serve or Fail EssayThe article server or Fail, by Dave Eggers of The New York Times presents a very interesting take on college students and their degage time. Eggers believes that colleges should institute a gain requirement for students to graduate. Due to his college experience he considers college students to have in like manner oft sp atomic number 18 time, which is wasted on silly electives or just wasted. With this surplus of time students should contri thate to the federation nearly themselves to develop intellectual tools that will be helpful to their cargoners post-graduation. The primary problem with making service a necessity is that it exchanges one requirement for another. Students already have too many requirements for college making college careers buy the farm longer needed, even Eggers agrees with this. Every student has to take certain learning requirements and many students have no need or will to even attend these courses. Learning requirements such as , Oceanography and Psychology are the issue. Students have no interest in these classes and just do the bare minimum to pass.In addition, students are not forced into taking whiffle ball or Cricket as a requirement as it might seem from this article. Those types of classes are electives that students choose if they would like to take them. This proposal just substitutes classes for work, which is not lots different. Many students would not want to be there in the first place, which leads to bad service for the community. Students would be on their phones, giving half effort or goofing around if this was made a requirement. Serving a community should be your choice and not an obligation.If helping out at a retirement property or tutoring children would be good for a students degree or resume, then he or she should seek that out on their own time. Students would have to pay for this in their tuition fees if it is through with(p) through the college. Paying to help your community is the ultimate oxymoron. This idea would not work because some students would be exempt and others would not. This places students into classes, a problem we already have in America. Students would try to find ways around working for the community by possibly going to community college instead of a university or convey college for some courses.Community colleges already have a few advantages working in their favor it is cheaper, and adpressed to home compared to most universities. College students need free time and down time to keep themselves sane. This proposal has too many holes, and it does not really take care of any real college issue. Colleges are already demanding comme il faut with the amount of work that is required. College takes too long as it is and this proposal would not change the length of college, but just changes the requirements to graduate.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Research Article Critique: Theories of Helping

Research Article critical review Theories of HelpingResearch Article CritiqueWong Hiu TungResearch Article CritiqueSprecher, S., Fehr, B., Zimmerman, C. (2007). Expectation for conception sweetening as a topic of dowery The effect of sex activity and compassionate know. Sex Roles, 56, 543-549. doi 10.1007/s11199-007-9192-6Introductory of summary of the news reportIn this article, Sprecher, Fehr, and Zimmerman (2007) attempted to investigate how gender and the propensity to experience the compassionate love for others argon accompliced with the forecast of the enhancement of positive imagination from giving help to others and receiving help from others. They aim to examine whether the some(prenominal) psychological theories of component part, which suggested that mint provide help due to receiving benefits, are correct or not. More specifically, the benefit received from share could be the self-benefit, which is the enhancement of positive mood.As a result, the partic ipants, 47 males and 133 females from U.S. Midwestern public university, were asked to complete the every which way assigned questionnaire, either ideate themselves as the giver or the recipient of the support acts, during the class. Firstly, participants were asked to rate the pointedness to which each helping behaviour was a good example of compassionate love. Secondly, they were asked to imagine the eight helping acts, which involved making a special meal, stealing a award, expressing empathy and caring, verbal support for a sticker decision, providing care when sick, a surprise gift, a call when feeling down, and sticking up for another, occurring with close companion and to assess what degree would they experience an increase in positive feelings as a consequence of each of the helping act. Finally, they completed the Compassionate Love Scale about their compassionate love for others.This study instal that all helping behaviours in this question were good examples of compassionate love and were expected to increase the mood of the individual. More specially, females are more likely to have an vista of enhancing positive mood as a result of both helping and receiving help in a relational context than males. Moreover, individuals who are extravagantly in compassionate love for others are more likely to forecast their enhancement of positive emotion from giving and receiving help than those who are embarrasseder on compassionate love. Altruism and gender role are the meaning of these results.CritiqueResearch Topic and QuestionThe problem is understandably state and is researchable by examining how gender and compassionate love are associated with mood enhancement from helping respectively.There are three inconstant in the research question and most of them are clearly outlined. The mood enhancement is clearly defined as the increase of positive emotion, much(prenominal) as happiness, joy, or satisfaction. The compassionate love also had clea r with the support of forceful psychological literary productions. Nevertheless, the definition of helping behaviours was ambiguous. The helping behaviours are defined briefly that alone included the eight helping acts, and stated that those helping acts are commonly experienced in the friendships of green adults. Therefore, it may take aim to provide a clear definition of helping behaviours in order to crystalize which behaviour can be involved in the situation of helping within this study.Literature check intoThe review is relevant to the research questions and design. The researchers cite previous studies of the association between helping and different variables respectively, such as gender, receiving benefit, and the situational and dispositional variables. Moreover, the review included the previous studies which related the design and the research question of the present study and pointed out the demarcations of the previous studies in order to justify the contents of their research. However, the review did not include the literature which contradicts to the prediction of the study, for example, the helping behaviours may not be determined by the rewarding.SamplingThe participants were similar in term of education level, ethnicity and social class to deoxidise the intervention of those variable. Lack of the method of selecting the sample is the limitation of this study. It merely described the take of participants and the ratio of the majority and the background of the participants, but have not report the sampling method. Furthermore, the ratio of the participants gender may not appropriate for this research which the number of the female participants was just about triple of the number of male participants. Since the gender is one of the considerable variables in this study, it is hardly to conclude the effects of gender in the expectation for mood enhancement due to the imbalance of the ratio of the participants gender.Method creamThe sel ected method is appropriate to the research question. Since the questionnaire was the most appropriate and convenient method of self-report, it is suitable for examining the expectation of mood enhancement. In addition, the scenario study can relatively be provided adequate answers to the research question. Because the participants can be easier to imagine the several helping acts by the provided scenarios than the non-scenario questions, the participants can more accurately predict the emotional changing subsequently giving or receiving help.The selected helping acts may not be the most proper indicator of helping behaviour as the limitation of the study, especially making a special meal, buying a present and giving a surprise gift. In general, those three helping behaviours in this research cannot be conclude as helping behaviours because these behaviours may occur in other situations rather than the situation of helping, for example, we may buy a present to our friends for thei r birthday. Moreover, the participants may increase their mood due to the external reward instead of receiving help. For instance, the participants may feel happy, as well as mood enhancement, because of the gift rather than receiving the help. Therefore, the validity of the research is low since the three helping acts are not appropriate as the helping behaviours.ProcedureThe designed surgery is clearly described regarding the work of the researchers and appropriate to answer the question of the study. First, the pre-test administered to the small group of similar students assessed the forte of the eight helping behaviours. It was appropriated to ensure that the eight helping behaviours are suitable to measure the mood enhancement as a result of those helping acts. Second, the procedure had protected the confidentiality of the research participants due to the anonymous and conscious questionnaire. One limitation of the study is that the questionnaire was completed during the cla ss time. In general, the time pressure mostly occurred in the lecture because of the pressing courses. Therefore, the participants may complete the questionnaire arbitrarily, as well as answering inaccurately, because of the time pressure. As a result, the questionnaire can be completed in their leisure time in order to reduce the time pressure as an influential factor.Data Gathering and AnalysisThere are several strengths in this section. The data are presented clearly and fully that the results are clearly separated into three sections of the research question which base on the sections of the questionnaire the helping behaviours were good examples of compassionate love, the association between gender and the expectation of mood enhancement as a result of the helping acts, and the association between compassionate love and the expectation of mood enhancement as a result of the helping acts. Also, the appropriate inferential and descriptive statistics are clearly described in text and presented in organized tables.Furthermore, the results are clearly stated which correlations failed to reach the significance for the helping acts in giving and receiving conditions. For example, male and female participants ratings of the giving or receiving a surprise gift did not differ significantly in expectation of mood enhancement.Interpretations, Conclusions and DiscussionThe researchers clearly concluded that the results of the study provide support for the two hypotheses. However, the results may not conclude that the gender is associate with the forecast of a specific self-benefit because the number of male participants are relative extremely smaller than the number of female participants. Therefore, the association between gender and expectation for mood enhancement is not representative.Although the researchers made a clear interpretations of the results in terms of the gender role and altruism, they had not explained the results of failing to reach the significance for the helping acts as the limitation of the study as well. For example, the helping act of giving or receiving a surprise gift was not a significant difference from male and female participants. Therefore, the study would also be explained the contradictory results for providing well-founded interpretations of the data.The limitations of the study are incomplete that the researchers merely considered two limitations of the study, which focus on a context and an emotional consequence of helping behaviours. Some confound is absent to present in the study, such as the cultural differences, age. Moreover, the participants mood also be enhanced by the external rewards rather than receiving or giving help, such as receiving a gift or a meal, when the participants imagine the situation. Therefore, the researchers may need to present the other limitations of the study.Finally, the researchers are presented the suggestion for future studies comprehensively. The researcher suggested the fu ture studies can examine how gender and compassionate love associate with the anticipation of negative emotion as the consequence of helping behaviours in other relational context, which based on the limitation of the study. Therefore, it is the contribution of this research.

Influence Of Positivism Interpretivism And Realism Approaches Psychology Essay

Influence Of Positivism Interpretivism And Realism Approaches psycho crystal clear skill EssayAll sociological question material bodys and orders make certain assumptions ab give a representation the nature of the sociable existence and how acquaintance is generated. One of the ways that look send packing be evaluated and improved is to make these assumptions more verbalised (Hibberd, 2005). Positivism, interpretivism and realism give blow answers to the nature of scientific friendship and whether or non it is applicable to societies. galore( attitudenominal) scholars entreat that a long deal of sociological investigate contains elements of every last(predicate) triple (Suppe, 1984 Bickhard, 1992 Hibberd, 2010). To a distant extent these arguments have influenced the modeological division of kind inquiry. It is claimed that, the three-figure methods have their intellectual underpinning in the overconfident and realist paradigms, while the soft methods/tec hniques have their intellectual underpinning in interpretativist, constructivist, and inbredist paradigms (Hanzel, 2010).However, despite these ongoing arguments between the methodological usages of soft and vicenary explore (Gage, 1989) combined methods represent a fast developing field of social science methodology. As all methods have specific margins and break outicular strengths, galore(postnominal) discussants propose that soft and decimal methods should be combined in order to compensate for their mutual weaknesses (Tashakkori Teddlie, 2003). Moreover, it is claimed that this movement scripts the beginning of a young era in social investigate indicated by a tendency to combine quantifiable and soft methods pragmatically unencumbered by old debates (Johnson Turner, 2003). Therefore it is emphasized that the drills of a mixed-method radiation pattern provides an important calamus in over access the limitations of both soft and vicenary mono-method look for .This essay deals with social theories that influence soft and qualitative explore methods employed in social sciences as either in principle separable or fifty-fifty as irreconcilable methods of social sciences. It starts with a characterization of positivity, Interpretivism and realism and links these theories to the foundation of qualitative and valued research methods. Then, it shows how they deal with the various aspects of the qualitative- numerical divide. Finally, it is the intention to show how the combined methodological approach may be merged in a coherent way to add value and abet in the excogitate of a single research project. With an emphasis on the departures and similarities between quantitative and qualitative approaches providing the basis for exploring the methods of cartel both approaches to overcome their weaknesses by providing a commentary of the complementary strengths of each tradition.Characterizing Positivism, Interpretivism and Realism approache sFew sociologists would list themselves as a convinced(p), interpretivist or realist. These argon terms employ primarily by methodologists and social theorists to report and evaluate the theoretical assumptions underlying different approaches to research (Bickhard, 1992 Johnson, 2006 Hibberd, 2010). There be many different popular opinions in sociology round what societies be and the best ways of obtaining knowledge of them. This part of the essay simplifies matters to some extent by characterizing three of the most influential theories of knowledge in sociology profitableness, interpretivism and realism (Bryman, 1998 and 2001 Hibberd 2010).PositivismPositivism is frequently utilize to stand for the epistemological assumption that empirical knowledge based on principles of objectivity, verificationism, and reproducibility is the foundation of all authentic knowledge (Bryman, 2001 Hanzel, 2010). The term positivist has been critical for some time in the gentlemans gentlem an sciences because positivist tends to subscribe to a number of bases that have no place in present-day science and doctrine (Hanzel, 2010). Positivism views that sociology can and should use the methods of the natural sciences, that do not usually mean using experiments because in that respect are all sorts of ethical problems with doing that, scarce positivists do believe that sociologists should use quantitative methods and aim to set and measure social structures. As a philosophical approach, favorableness encompasses a crowd of notions. Table 1 on a lower floor, provides main characters for positivist key ideas. It shows that positivists sum up all the items by being against metaphysics (Hacking, 1983).Character commentaryemphasis upon verificationSignificant propositions are those whose truth or assumedhood can be colonized in some way.Pro- honoringWhat we can see, feel, touch, and the like provide the best content or foundation for all the rest of our non mathematical knowledge.DiscoverabilityScientific knowledge is something discovered (rather than produced or constructed).Anti-causeThere is no causativeity in nature, over and above the constancy with which events of bingle kind are followed by events of an different kind.Downplaying explanation commentary may help organize phenomena, but do not provide any thick-skulleder answer to wherefore questions except to say that the phenomena regularly occur in such and such a way.Anti-theoretical entitiesPositivists tend to be non-realists, not scarce because they restrict creation to the discernable but overly because they are against causes and are indistinct astir(predicate) explanations.Table 1 Positivism charactersSource Hacking, 1983Positivist theory debates that the methods of the natural sciences are applicable to the study of societies. In the positivist view, sociology selects the search for causal relationships between observable phenomena and theories are tested against observa tions (Hibberd, 2009). interrogationers adopting a positivist point of view may still be interested in finding out about pots immanent views. For utilisation, they explore things such as attitudes and opinions through survey research (Michell, 2003). However, they see the childbed of sociology as explaining why people behave in the way they do, and how people really feel about things cannot be explained scientifically.InterpretivistInterpretivists do not of necessity reject the positivist account of knowledge, but they question the idea that the logic and methods of natural science can be imported into the study of societies. Max Weber was one of the main influences on the interpretivist tradition in sociology. For him, natural science and social science are two very different enterprises requiring a different logic and different methods (Bryman, 1982).At the heart of interpretivist critique of positivism is a humanist viewpoint. Some of those favouring an interpretivist view of sociology have long argued that in their search for a scientific explanation of social life, positivist have sometimes forgotten that they are studying people, and to study people you need to get out and explore how they really think and act in everyday situations. Interpretivists argue that unlike objects in nature, human beings can change their demeanor if they know they are being observe (Collins, 1984 Guba, 1987). So, interpretivists argue that if we want to understand social action, we need to look into the reasons and means which that action has for people (Marsh, 2002). Take the example of crime, a positivist would argue that researchers can simply measure crime using quantitative methods and recognise patterns and correlations. While, an interpretivist would argue that we need to understand what people mean by crime, how they come to categorize certain actions as criminal and then investigate who comes to be seen as criminal in a particular purchase order . The aim o f interpretivist approaches in sociology is to understand the subjective experiences of those being studied, how they think and feel and how they act in their natural contexts (Marsh, 2002 Johnson, 2006).Therefore, although interpretivists still try to be objective and opinionated in their research, the key criterion in interpretivist epistemology is validity. The favoured research design is ethnography and the main methods are ones that help researchers understand social life from the point of view of those being studied, such as unstructured observation, unstructured interviews and personal records. Interpretivism has provided a powerful critique of many of the taken-for-granted ideas of positivism that are widely used in sociology and in other social sciences (Marsh, 2002). It has also influenced a whole field of research illuminating peoples everyday life experiences. However, interpretivists accounts are criticised by some sociologists for not providing testable hypotheses t hat can be evaluated. This can lead to relativism where one theory, or study, is seen as just as fair as any other.RealismRealist theory, like positivism, holds that sociology can, and should, follow the logic and methods of the natural sciences, meanwhile, it differs from positivism in its description of science (Hartwig, 2007 Hibberd, 2010). In positivist research, theories are tested against observations and found to be true or false or somewhere in between. In simple terms, the incidents are the judge of the theory (Hibberd, 2010). Realists do not make this clear-cut separation because they do not believe that observations can be separated from theories (Parker, 2003 Hartwig, 2007). They argue that no form of science relies exclusively on observable empirical evidence. There are incessantly aspects of any form of reality that remain hidden beneath the surface of what can be sight (Duran, 2005 Hibberd, 2010). According to realists, the aim of scientific work is to uncover th e underlying causal mechanisms that bring about observable regularities.Realists see research being guided primarily by scientific criteria, such as the systematic pile upion of evidence, reliability and transparency. However, because they recognise the importance of the subjective dimension of human action, they also include methods that document the validity of peoples experiences (Bhaskar, 1999). seek designs are more likely to be experimental or comparative in realist research, but there is no particular commitment to either quantitative or qualitative methods (Parker, 2003 Hartwig 2007).The focal point of realist methodology, however, is on theory. Realists argue that as there is no such thing as theory-free data sociological methods should be specifically concentered on the evaluation and comparison of theoretical images, explanations and policies.The development of a clear, realist epistemology is comparatively recent in sociology and owes much to new realist writers lik e Bhaskar (1986, 1999) and Pawson (1989). They have provided a different interpretation of science and its relationship to social sciences, and a developing alternative to the dominant theories of positivism and Interpretivism that laid the foundations for a non-empiricist epistemology in social science (Hibberd, 2009 and 2010). However, they would say that this doesnt mean that either set of methods, positivist or interpretive, have to be ditched. The realists argument is that sociologists can be pragmatic and use whatever methods are appropriate for particular circumstances. accessible reality is complex and to study it, sociologists can draw on both positivist and interpretivist methods.However, realism is also criticised for exaggerating the dependence of science and social science on theory, and realist epistemology offers, at best, very limited truths about the social world. Many studies in sociology use a combination of positivist, interpretivist and, more recently, realist ideas, just as they use different research methods. The three theories are very general descriptive terms and there are many different theoretical approaches within the general framework of each one. Table 2 shows different research methods associated with each theory.TheoryResearch designResearch methodsPositivismSocial surveys morphological interviewsExperimentalStructural observationsComparativeOfficial statisticsInterpretivismEthnographyParticipant observationUnstructured interviewsPersonal documentsRealismExperimentalNon-specific, but methods are theory-focusedComparativeTable 2 Theory, Design and methodsSource Bryman, 2001Conflict of Quantitative and Qualitative Research ParadigmsThe quantitative methods have their sage foundation in the positivist and realist paradigms, while the qualitative methods have their rational foundation in interpretativist, constructivist, and naturalist paradigms. The opposition between these paradigms was succinctly characterized by Guba as follo ws The one precludes the other just as surely as belief in a round world precludes accept in a flat one (Guba 1987, 31). The opposition between these paradigms is then expressed as shown below in table 3 (Lincoln and Guba 1985).Axioms AboutPositivist ParadigmNaturalist ParadigmThe nature of realityReality is single, tangible, and fragmentable.Realities are octuple, constructed, and holistic.The relationship of the knower to the known apprehender and known are independent, a dualism.Knower and known are interactive, inseparable.The possibility of generalizationTime- and context-free generalizations (nomothetic statements) are possible.Only time- and context-bound working hypotheses (idiographic statements) are possible.The possibility of causal linkagesThere are real causes, temporally precedent or simultaneous with their effects.All entities are in a state of mutual simultaneous shaping, so that it is impossible to distinguish causes from effects.The role of values dubiousness is value-free.Inquiry is value-bound.Table 3 Contrasting of Positivists and Naturalists Paradigms,Source Amended from (Hanzel, 2010 Lincoln and Guba 1985)Consequently, it is comm whole claimed that quantitative research is based on positivistic assumptions, whereas the qualitative approach is grounded on anti-positivistic positions (Lincoln Guba, 1985 Lund, 2005). Several researchers and academics (Creswell, 1995 Gall Borg, 1996 Ryan Bernard, 2000) have wedded additional explanations to both methods they are asserting that quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships within the social sciences. Thus, the objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to social phenomena. The surgical procedure of numerical measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observ ation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Qualitative research is distinctive by nature in aiming to collect detailed accounts investigating into the sagacity of human behaviour. The qualitative researcher assumes that flexibility in human behaviour is socially constructed, as so, seeks to reason and analyses factors that govern such behaviour in doing so the qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just the quantifiable what, where or when occurrences.Similarly, Jana Plichtov (2002) claims that the differences between the quantitative and qualitative research methods are based on a paradigmatically different understanding of the subject matter of and the sense of acquaintance in the social sciences, that is The quantitative approach starts from the premise that we can arrive at trustworthy knowledge only if the human being is reduced to a set of measurable variables between which we can guess the relations of causation. It se es the sense of cognition in prediction and control of human behaviour. While, the qualitative approach does not agree with that reduction because it degrades the human being to a reacting mechanism, It proposes such research strategies which respect the fact that the human being is an acting being pursuing certain intentions, creating and understanding meanings, and that it is a socio-cultural being whose adaptation has a mediated and social character (Plichtov, 2002).Moreover, Gall et al. (1996, cited Lund, 2005) presents key differences between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. Part of the difference refers to what researchers assume, the other part focuses on the truth of these assumptions, irrespectively of whether or not they are adopted by researchers. Onwuegbuzie and bleed (2005) have other classifications to the differences between both methods they argue that the quantitative-qualitative paradigm conflict has resulted in the evolution of three major school s of thought, namely purists, situationalists and pragmatists. The difference between these three perceptions relates to the extent to which each believes that quantitative and qualitative approaches can co-exist and be combined (Bryman, 1984). These three camps can be understood as purists and pragmatists exist on opposite ends, while situationalists are somewhere in the middle. The following account focuses on Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2005) perspective.For purists, the assumptions associated with quantitative and qualitative paradigms regarding how the world is viewed and what it is important to know are irreconcilable. They envisage that both methods stem from different metaphysical and epistemological assumptions about the nature of research (Bryman, 1984 Collins, 1984 Tashakkori Teddlie, 1998). Purists advocate that the methods and tenets from positivism and post-positivism cannot and should not be mixed (Smith, 1983). They believe that the axioms of post-positivism and positivi sm have mutually exclusive assumptions about society thereof, the research methods derived under each are considered to be mutually exclusive as wellIn agreement with purists and acceptance of both positivist and post positivist paradigms, situationalists maintain that qualitative and quantitative methods are complementary but should not be integrated in a single study. However, they believe that definite research questions relate more to quantitative approaches, whereas other research questions are more commensurate for qualitative methods (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005). Thus, although representing very different directions, the two approaches are inured as being complementary.By contrast, pragmatists, unlike purists and situationalists, contend that a false separation exists between quantitative and qualitative approaches (Newman Benz, 1998). They advocate the integration of methods within a single study. Sieber (1973) articulated that because both approaches have internal str engths and weaknesses, researchers should utilize the strengths of both techniques in order to understand better social phenomena. Indeed, pragmatists assign to the philosophy that the research question should drive the methods used (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005). In any case, researchers who ascribe to epistemological purity disregard the fact that research methodologies are merely tools that are designed to aid our understanding of the world.Table 4 presents a summary of the qualitative-quantitative divide, understood as a clash of paradigms, each characterized by the characteristics shown in the table (Reichardt and urinate 1979). Here the divide is approached by means of a possible link between the respective method and the attributes of a paradigm. Another characterization of the nature of the qualitative-quantitative divide is presented by A. Bryman, as shown in table 5 (Bryman 1988, 94).Qualitative ParadigmQuantitative ParadigmAdvocates the use of qualitative methodsAdvocates the use of quantitative methodsPhenomenology concerned with understanding human behavior from the actors own frame of referenceLogical-positivism seeks the facts or causes of social phenomena with little regard for the subjective states of individualsNaturalistic and uncontrolled observationObtrusive and controlled measurementSubjectiveObjectiveGrounded, discovery-oriented, exploratory, expansionist, descriptive, and inductiveUngrounded, verification-oriented, confirmatory, reductionist, inferential, and hypothetico-deductiveProcess-orientedOutcome-orientedValid real, rich, and deep dataReliable hard and replicable dataUngeneralizable single case studiesGeneralizable multiple case studiesHolisticparticularisticAssumes a dynamic realityAssumes a stable realityTable 4 Reichardt and Cook on Attributes of the Qualitative and Quantitative ParadigmsSource Amended from (Hanzel,2010)Based on such characterizations of the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, the issue of the qualitative-quantitative divide in social sciences could be approached from two points of view. The first, moderate, according to which one deals only with two different sets of techniques that can be, if required, mutually combined and the second, radical, according to which the divide and the respective techniques/methods are grow in paradigmatically opposed epistemologies and, thus, the respective methods/techniques cannot be combined.AspectQuantitative ResearchQualitative Research government agency of qualitative researchPreparatoryMeans to exploration of actors interpretationsRelationship between researcher and subject distantCloseResearchers stance in relation to subjectOutsiderInsiderRelationship between theory/concept and researchConfirmationEmergentResearch strategyStructuredUnstructuredScope of findingsNomotheticideographicImage of social realityStatic and external to actorProcessual and socially constructed by actor genius of dataHard, reliableRich, deepTable 5 Br yman on Differences between Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchSource Amended from (Hanzel,2010)Similarities between Quantitative and Qualitative Research ApproachesIt is possible to argue that there are overwhelmingly more similarities between quantitative and qualitative approaches than there are differences (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005). Bothe and Andreatta (2004), add that both approaches involve the use of observations to address research questions, describe their data, construct descriptive arguments from their data, and speculate about why the results they notice happened as they did. Both sets of researchers select and use analytical techniques that are designed to obtain the maximal meaning from their data, and so that findings have utility in relation to their respective views of reality (Kelle, 2006).Both methods investigators utilize techniques to ramble their data. Such techniques include persistent observation with continuous and prolonged investigation of the rese arch study with considerateness to rival explanations. Replication of the chosen study method to other cases (of which may include extreme scenarios) provides the fortune to gain validity of findings and the methodological approach used, by means of a representative study group to allow for reliable generalisations to be made. Triangulation, verification of researcher effects and weighting of the evidence identifies and resolves researcher parti pris and thick description (Creswell, 1998, cited Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005) which may impact on the findings. Debriefing of study participants may obtain blue-chip feedback from participants also.Moreover, quantitative and qualitative researches represent an interactive range and the role of theory is central for both paradigms. Specifically, in qualitative research the most common purposes are those of theory initiation and theory building, whereas in quantitative research the most typical objectives are those of theory testing and t heory modification (Newman Benz, 1998). Clearly, neither tradition is independent of the other, nor can either school encompass the whole research process. Thus, both quantitative and qualitative research techniques are needed to gain a more complete understanding of phenomena (Newman Benz, 1998).Hence, there are many parallels exist between quantitative and qualitative research. Indeed, the purity of a research paradigm is a habit of the extent to which the researcher is prepared to conform to its underlying assumptions (Luttrell, Wendy, 2005).This suggests that methodological pluralism (Larsson, 2009) should be promoted, the best way for this to occur is for as many investigators as possible to become pragmatic researchers (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005).Combined research methods and function in the research processA combination of qualitative and quantitative research approaches can assist in practical solutions to overcome limitations of mono-method research discussed for the l ast 50 years (Kelle, 2006). However, it is rarely address in current debates whether it is possible to develop solid methodological strategies for structuring research methods based on that insight of compounding qualitative and quantitative methods (Creswell et al., 2003 Tashakkori Teddlie, 2003 Onwuegbuzie Leech, 2005), though there is a broad agreement that a use of multiple methods with complementary strengths and different weaknesses can add value to a single research. Despite this, the discussion provides only sparse information about which designs could overcome which weaknesses of mono-method research. Furthermore, there is still a lack of agreement about the exact classification and terminology of different mixed methods, combined method or multi-method designs which are used in research practice (Tashakkori Teddlie, 2003, cited Onwuegbuzie Leech, 2005, p307 ).By starting the research process with a qualitative study, researchers may obtain access to knowledge that hel ps them to develop the appropriate theoretical concepts and to construct consistent research instruments later on that cover relevant phenomena by con successive and relevant items. Such a design helps to overcome the limited transferability of findings from qualitative research as well as the initially mentioned hazards of the heuristics of commonsense knowledge (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005, p 307). This approach can help to construct consistent research instruments that cover relevant phenomena by consequential and relevant substances.Meanwhile, combining qualitative and quantitative methods the opposite way could be useful in many cases that means starting with a quantitative study, followed by qualitative questions (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005 Lund 2005). In this quantitative-qualitative approach, problem areas and research questions are identified by carrying out a quantitative study which will have to be further investigated with the help of qualitative data and methods. The p roblem of quantitative research addressed by this design is often the difficulty to understand statistical findings without additional socio cultural knowledge.Furthermore, the quantitative part of a sequential quantitative-qualitative design can guide systematic case comparison in the following qualitative inquiry by helping to identify criteria for the selection of cases and by providing a sampling frame (Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005 Kelle, 2006). Thus, this design can help to overcome an important threat of validity existing in qualitative research that researchers focus on distant and marginal cases. Another problem of qualitative research can be addressed by this design it helps to avoid a qualitative study with an outsized scope that covers a field of battle too wide to be captured with the help of a small qualitative sample. Onwuegbuzie and Leech (2005) give a simple example to understand the above problem a qualitative study of family life in a contemporary city would have t o take into account many more different forms of families than a similar study in a traditional rural community in the first decades of the twentieth century. By drawing on statistical material about the distribution of different family forms, the minimum requirements for qualitative sampling could be easily captured, and may be well advised to downsize the research question and research domain (Bryman, 2001 Onwuegbuzie and Leech, 2005).On the other hand, a parallel qualitative-quantitative design can implement similar functions to a sequential design the qualitative part of the study can provide information that helps to understand statistical relations, to develop explanations and to identify additional variables that increase variance already explained in the quantitative data. A great benefit of a parallel qualitative-quantitative design is that it helps to identify measurement problems and methodological artefact of both qualitative and quantitative data, as the same persons a re interviewed with different techniques (Bryman, 1992 and 2001). However, this parallel design approach encloses an important disadvantage, it is that qualitative sampling and data collection cannot be systematically developed from research questions derived from quantitative data therefore it can easily be the case that the available qualitative data provide no answers for questions coming from the quantitative study, as they were not collected for that purpose.ConclusionIt is shown throughout this essay that the theoretical approach influences the methodological approach and vice versa. Many studies in sociology use a combination of positivist, interpretivist and, realist ideas. The essay demonstrates that the influence of positivism has inspired much of social research most prevalent research methods. Some of these include surveys, questionnaires and statistical models. Researchers applying a positivist methodology for their study consider large-scale sample surveys and controll ed laboratory experiments as suitable research methods. These methods can be justified as they allow positivist researchers to employ empirical and logical quantitative data. While, interpretivism employs qualitative methods to understand people, not to measure them, it attempts to capture reality in interaction, however, does not necessarily exclude quantitative methods. Whereas, quantitative results from a positivist method like a survey are unlikely to provide understanding of this deeper reality and therefore should not be a major part of any realism research project, basically, because realism research data are almost always qualitative data about meanings.The essay provides several benefits of performing mixed method research. Researchers of social science use a wide variety of research methods to gain and enhance knowledge and theory. The different types of research methodologies, quantitative and qualitative, are associated with the epistemological and theoretical perspectiv es the researcher wishes to adopt. The essay demonstrated that quantitative and qualitative methods can fulfil different, yet, complementary purposes within mixed-method designs. Quantitative methods can give an overview ab